Flat Earth


If no one can prove that the earth is a globe / planet, yet any one can establish evidence that the earth is flat, then what is truth? How do we see the night sky from the flat Earth  This guy set out to prove that we live on a globe and then got his disappointment of his life

wholesome umlingo department Earth Environment


 Research for your self  /  CAD based research / Int. flat Earth research society / Sun dial / Zetetic Astrology / FE Learners


 Patrick Moore Investigates Flat Earth and other theories in Can You Speak Venusian


durban 40kms

The Ocean is FLAT!  Today we decided to see for our selves if the ocean is flat on a endless plane or wrapped around a ball earth/globe/planet. So we went to the coast past Tongaat to see and photograph Durban from at least 40 kilometres far from where we are parked to take pictures from 3.5 meters above sea level.

According to the earth curvature as taught in all schools Durban coast line should have 87 meters missing horizon from the beach upward.

But the entire beach and Durban is visible!

The ocean is flat, the proof is is right here.

Thank you https://dizzib.github.io/earth/curve-calc/

durban 40 kms Google earth


Horizon flat! Horizon at eye level! 121,000 feet. This is not possible on a ball. 3 times higher than Air-planes fly.

Please be aware that we all suffer with “Cognitive Dissonance” on this subject.

Sometimes people hold a core belief that is very strong.
When they are presented with evidence that works against that belief, the new evidence cannot be accepted.
It creates a feeling that is extremely uncomfortable, called cognitive dissonance.
And because it is so important to protect the core belief, they will rationalise, ignore and even deny anything that doesn’t fit in with the core belief.

It will take you more than a few hours of Flat Earth research to overcome a lifetime of indoctrination

The truth is not for everyone, but only for those who seek it.

I recommend these links:

For more information about our flat, stationary Earth please visit:
http://www.AtlanteanConspiracy.com/
http://www.ifers.ace.st/

Flat Earth is the Most Important Truth
https://youtu.be/8Wznf3k57fA

Eric Dubay Flat Earth Veritas Radio Interview
https://youtu.be/5yRAQG5-ca8

The Zionists, Freemasons, and NASA’s Biggest Secret
https://youtu.be/dTqmcvdm4hM

Flat Earth Podcast with Eric Dubay and Mark Knight
https://youtu.be/f5aB6oThGK8

The Biggest Lie of All
https://www.youtube.com/watch

ODD TV’s Flat Earth Trilogy
https://youtu.be/ARp2j8t3O8Q

121,000 feet Little Piggy Cam High Altitude Balloon Flight
https://youtu.be/WQITXbcz2hg

The following 6-hour documentary is currently the most complete and comprehensive presentation of the Flat Earth truth available to date. Narrated by Eric Dubay, this videobook covers the majority of his best-selling “The Flat Earth Conspiracy,” book and is guaranteed to awaken even the sleepiest sheeple to the global deception. Please like, subscribe, comment and share to help get this most important documentary out to the masses! https://youtu.be/GhRiLP32qfs

FREE Download or read online.
200 Proofs Earth is Not a Spinning Ball.
Author Eric Dubay.
http://www.atlanteanconspiracy.com/2015/08/200-proofs-earth-is-not-spinning-ball.html

200 Proofs Earth is not a spinning ball video book by Eric Dubay.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h5i_iDyUTCg

The Flat Earth Masonic Matrix Manipulators
https://youtu.be/R77j9rUuky4

TIMELAPSE OF THE SUN PROVES FLAT EARTH – HD
https://youtu.be/GDaiw-G1VGE

Great short 4 minute video showing many Space/Earth Anomalies/CGI
https://youtu.be/X-m8Wsg6Kuk

Debunking the Spinning Ball Earth
https://www.youtube.com/watch

Gravity Does Not Exist! by Eric Dubay
https://youtu.be/4J18e30zTyE

Relativity Does Not Exist!
https://youtu.be/EdBeobHx8YE

Total Eclipse of the Mind
https://youtu.be/m0dDw-8Nhow

Flat Earth – Coriolis Effect
https://youtu.be/P6kp0ramXGs

Flat Earth – Foucault’s Pendulum
https://youtu.be/emwgDIFW9yc

Flat Earth – Ships Disappearing Over the Horizon
https://youtu.be/xqnKmoZEuUw

Flat Earth – Circumnavigation and Time Zones
https://youtu.be/GFv-1C4pMn4

The Masonic Sun-Worshipping Globalist Cult of NASA
https://www.youtube.com/watch

The NASA Moon and Mars Landing Hoaxes
https://youtu.be/GSJxEMw0MCI

The Flat Earth Truth
https://youtu.be/p72cOVaVoTA

Stars are Not Suns!
https://youtu.be/PZLf52DQjPc

Flat Earth Star Trails Explained
https://youtu.be/ahNfU7zYlmY

Rivers Of Belief
https://youtu.be/rRYXjtmW6n4

Space Invaders (Moon Hoax) 34 min
https://youtu.be/qOOyL3ZXH34

Fragile Bubbles Of Lies
https://youtu.be/GPw3B8POtwk

My Perspective Youtube Channel
https://www.youtube.com/user/Rorycoopervids/videos

TETs TRUTH TUBE Youtube Channel
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCxjjbu4mA4lKUsNt_6v8Tzg/videos

Flat Earth and the Real Stars
https://youtu.be/hdNFo5eWf9g

Flat Earth – The Ultimate Litmus Test
https://youtu.be/eNVvRxQWb6g

Flat Earth Documentaries by ODD TV/Reality

Flat Earth All Meat & No Potatoes:
https://youtu.be/gkLl7C5BkmQ

True World:
https://youtu.be/debcXgOi0T0

Learning Curve:
https://youtu.be/n1DQSBI42Eg

Epic Deception:
https://youtu.be/zBuPiVzQLxo

21 Questions for Flat Earth:
https://youtu.be/k0xClWgidZU

Flat Earth 5 Minutes
https://youtu.be/GDKc6X8TXNE

My Facebook video list

The Lie We Live – Life Changing Flat Earth Interview with Eric Dubay
https://www.facebook.com/john.thor.jt/videos/1229564917103067/

I’m Sorry, Did I Wake You ?
https://www.facebook.com/john.thor.jt/videos/1244097548983137/

Would they lie to you?
https://www.facebook.com/john.thor.jt/videos/1239676422758583/

The Truth In Plane Sight. Amazing Balloon And Rocket Footage
https://www.facebook.com/john.thor.jt/videos/1239611339431758/

Please Look!
https://www.facebook.com/john.thor.jt/videos/1227408203985405/

Is The Sun Really 93 Million Miles Away? Or ….
https://www.facebook.com/john.thor.jt/videos/1206398202753072/

CREPUSCULAR SUN RAYS PROVE THE SUN IS CLOSE
https://www.facebook.com/john.thor.jt/videos/1217918601601032/

Sunset Experiment and more **AWESOME**
https://www.facebook.com/john.thor.jt/videos/1217880451604847/

Welcome to your true reality. 121,000 feet. (Balloon)
https://www.facebook.com/john.thor.jt/videos/1054083704651190/

Balloon at 21 Miles High Reveals The Truth of Our Reality!
https://www.facebook.com/john.thor.jt/videos/1163159027076990/

Our True Reality Is Plane To See! (Balloon)
https://www.facebook.com/john.thor.jt/videos/1201203269939232/

UNDENIABLE PROOF FLAT EARTH SUN VISIBLE AT NIGHT. (Balloon)
https://www.facebook.com/john.thor.jt/videos/1186205581439001/

The General Population Doesn’t Know Where They Live (Balloon)
https://www.facebook.com/john.thor.jt/videos/1171716329554593/

High Altitude Balloon reveals the truth?
https://www.facebook.com/john.thor.jt/videos/1190077611051798/

Beautiful Balloon Ride Reaches 36 KM with Beautiful views of our Sun.
https://www.facebook.com/john.thor.jt/videos/1238745539518338/

The Flat Earth Explained and Proven in 2 Minutes.
https://www.facebook.com/john.thor.jt/videos/1186095584783334/

Flat Earth in Five Minutes
https://www.facebook.com/john.thor.jt/videos/1186133581446201/

Ten problems with the globe
https://www.facebook.com/john.thor.jt/videos/1060587024000858/

Who Forgot to spin the Earth? Serious Space Anomalies!
https://www.facebook.com/john.thor.jt/videos/1051685604891000/

Gemini IV The Deception started early 1965 (can you spot the deception?)
https://www.facebook.com/john.thor.jt/videos/1059372400788987/

What do you know about Fish-eye Lenses? 2 minute video
https://www.facebook.com/john.thor.jt/videos/1196655377060688/

If the Earth is Flat how would it ever get dark?
https://www.facebook.com/john.thor.jt/videos/1097621410297419/

Flat Earth why? “The motive”
https://www.facebook.com/john.thor.jt/videos/1053800328012861/

Brian Cox explains round earth brainwashing.
https://www.facebook.com/john.thor.jt/videos/1053547724704788/

Feather and hammer experiment not in a vacuum vs NASA Moon
https://www.facebook.com/john.thor.jt/videos/1050765861649641/

True Reality Awakening Anthem! “Watching The Wheels” John Lennon
https://www.facebook.com/john.thor.jt/videos/1230937570299135/

Flat Earth Warriors By RockMasta
https://www.facebook.com/john.thor.jt/videos/1050640948328799/


15 EXPERIMENTS DEMONSTRATING THE TRUE FORM OF STANDING WATER, AND PROVING THE EARTH TO BE A PLANE.

IF the earth is a globe, and is 25,000 English statute miles in circumference, the surface of all standing water must have a certain degree of convexity–every part must be an arc of a circle. From the summit of any such arc there will exist a curvature or declination of 8 inches in the first statute mile. In the second mile the fall will be 32 inches; in the third mile, 72 inches, or 6 feet, as shown in the following diagram:

FIG. 1.

 

FIG. 1.

Let the distance from T to figure 1 represent 1 mile, and the fall from 1 to A, 8 inches; then the fall from 2 to B will be 32 inches, and from 3 to C, 72 inches. In every

p. 10

mile after the first, the curvature downwards from the point T increases as the square of the distance multiplied by 8 inches. The rule, however, requires to be modified after the first thousand miles. 1 The following table will show at a glance the amount of curvature, in round numbers, in different distances up to 100 miles.

Curvature

in

1

statute

mile

8

inches.

2

32

3

6

feet.

4

10

5

16

6

24

7

32

8

42

9

54

10

66

20

266

30

600

40

1066

50

1666

60

2400

70

3266

80

4266

90

5400

100

6666

120

9600

” 2

 

p. 11

It will be seen by this table that after the first few miles the curvature would be so great that no difficulty could exist in detecting either its actual existence or its proportion. Experiments made on the sea shore have been objected to on account of the constantly changing altitude of the surface of the water, and of the existence of banks and channels which produce a “crowding” of the waters, as well as currents and other irregularities. Standing water has therefore been selected, and many important experiments have been made, the most simple of which are the following:–

In the county of Cambridge there is an artificial river or canal, called the “Old Bedford.” It is upwards of twenty miles in length, and (except at the part referred to at page 16) passes in a straight line through that part of the Fens called the “Bedford Level.” The water is nearly stationary–often completely so, and throughout its entire length has no interruption from locks or water-gates of any kind; so that it is, in every respect, well adapted for ascertaining whether any or what amount of convexity really exists.


 

EXPERIMENT 1.

A boat, with a flag-staff, the top of the flag 5 feet above the surface of the water, was directed to sail from a place called “Welche’s Dam” (a well-known ferry passage), to another called “Welney Bridge.” These two points are six statute miles apart. The author, with a good telescope, went into the water; and with the eye about 8 inches above the surface, observed the receding boat during the whole period required to sail to Welney Bridge. The flag and the boat were distinctly visible throughout the whole distance! There could be no

p. 12

mistake as to the distance passed over, as the man in charge of the boat had instructions to lift one of his oars to the top of the arch the moment he reached the bridge. The experiment commenced about three o’clock in the afternoon of a summer’s day, and the sun was shining brightly and nearly behind or against the boat during the whole of its passage. Every necessary condition had been fulfilled, and the result was to the last degree definite and satisfactory. The conclusion was unavoidable that the surface of the water for a length of six miles did not to any appreciable extent decline or curvate downwards from the line of sight. But if the earth is a globe, the surface of the six miles length of water would have been 6 feet higher in the centre than at the two extremities, as shown in diagram fig. 2; but as the telescope was only 8 inches above the

FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

water, the highest point of the surface would have been at one mile from the place of observation; and below this point the surface of the water at the end of the remaining five miles would have been 16 feet.

Let A B represent the arc of water 6 miles long, and A C the line of sight. The point of contact with the arc would be at T, a distance of one mile from the observer at A. From T to the bridge at B would be 5 miles, and the curvature from T to B would be 16 feet 8 inches. The top of the flag on the boat (which was 5 feet high) would have been 11 feet 8 inches below

p. 13

the horizon T, and altogether out of sight. Such a condition was not observed; but the following diagram, fig. 3, exhibits the true state of the case–A, B, the line of sight, equi-distant.

FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

from or parallel with the surface of the water throughout the whole distance of 6 milts: From which it is concluded that the surface of standing water is not convex, but horizontal.


 

EXPERIMENT 2.

Along the edge of the water, in the same canal, six flags were placed, one statute mile from each other, and so arranged that the top of each flag was 5 feet above the surface. Close to the last flag in the series a longer staff was fixed, bearing a flag 3 feet square, and the top of which was 8 feet above the surface of the water–the bottom being in a line with the tops of the other and intervening flags, as shown in the following diagram, Fig, 4.

FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

On looking with a good telescope over and along the flags, from A to B, the line of sight fell on the lower part of the larger flag at B. The altitude of the point B above the water at D was 5 feet, and the altitude of the telescope at A above

p. 14

the water at C was 5 feet; and each intervening flag had the same altitude. Hence the surface of the water C, D, was equidistant from the line of sight A, B; and as A B was a right line, C, D, being parallel, was also a right line; or, in other words, the surface of the water, C, D, was for six miles absolutely horizontal.

If the earth is a globe, the series of flags in the last experiment would have had the form and produced the results represented in the diagram, Fig. 5. The water curvating from

FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

[paragraph continues] C to D, each flag would have been a given amount below the line A, B. The first and second flags would have determined the direction of the line of sight from A to B, and the third flag would have been 8 inches below the second; the fourth flag, 32 inches; the fifth, 6 feet; the sixth, 10 feet 8 inches; and the seventh, 16 feet 8 inches; but the top of the last and largest flag, being 3 feet higher than the smaller ones, would have been 13 feet 8 inches below the line of sight at the point B. The rotundity of the earth would necessitate the above conditions; but as they cannot be found to exist, the doctrine must be pronounced as only a simple theory, having no foundation in fact–a pure invention of misdirected genius; splendid in its comprehensiveness and bearing upon natural phenomena; but, nevertheless, mathematical and logical necessities compel its denunciation as an absolute falsehood.

p. 15

The above-named experiments were first made by the author in the summer of 1838, but in the previous winter season, when the water in the “Old Bedford” Canal was frozen, he had often, when lying on the ice, with a good telescope observed persons skating and sliding at known distances of from four to eight miles. He lived for nine successive months within a hundred yards of the canal, in a temporary wooden building, and had many opportunities of making and repeating observations and experiments, which it would only be tedious to enumerate, as they all involved the same principle, and led to the same conclusions as those already described. It may, however, interest the reader to relate an instance which occurred unexpectedly, and which created such a degree of con-fusion, that he was repeatedly tempted to destroy the many memoranda he had previously made. Up to this time all his observations had been made in the direction of Welney, the bridge there affording a substantial signal point; but on one occasion, a gentleman who resided within a few miles of the temporary residence already alluded to, and with whom conversations and discussions had been repeatedly held, insisted upon the telescope being directed upon a barge sailing in an opposite direction to that previously selected. Watching the slowly receding vessel for a considerable time, it suddenly disappeared altogether! The gentleman co-observer cried out in a tone of exultation, “Now, sir, are you satisfied that the water declines?” It was almost impossible to say anything in reply. All that could be done was to “gaze in mute astonishment” in the direction of the lost vessel–

p. 16

compelled to listen to the jeers and taunts of the apparent victor. After thus wonderingly gazing for a considerable time, with still greater astonishment the vessel was seen to suddenly come again into view? Obliged to admit the reappearance of the vessel; neither of us could fairly claim the victory, as both were puzzled and equally in an experimental “fix.” This condition of the question at issue lasted for several days, when, one evening conversing with a “gunner” (a shooter of wild fowl), upon the strange appearance referred to, he laughingly undertook to explain the whole affair. He said that at several miles away, beyond the ferry-house, the canal made a sudden bend in the shape of the letter V when lying horizontally, and that the vessel disappeared on account of its entering into one side of the triangle, and reappeared after passing down the other side and entering the usual line of the canal! After a time a large map of the canal was found in a neighbouring town, Wisbeach, and the “gunner’s” statement fully verified.

The following diagram will explain this strange, and for a time confounding, phenomenon.

FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

A, represents the position of the observer, and the arrows the direction of the vessel, which, on arriving at the point B, suddenly entered the “reach” B, C, and disappeared, but which, on arriving at C, became again visible, and remained

p. 17

so after entering and sailing along the canal from C to D. The ferry-house and several trees, which stood on the side of the canal, between the observer and the “bend,” had prevented the vessel being seen during the time it was passing from B to C. Thus the “mystery” was cleared away; the author was the real victor; and the gentleman referred to, with many others of the neighbourhood, subsequently avowed their conviction that the water in the “Bedford Level” at least, was horizontal, and they therefore could not see how the earth could possibly be a globe.


 

EXPERIMENT 3.

A good theodolite was placed on the northern bank of the canal, midway between Welney Bridge and the Old Bedford Bridge, which are fully six miles apart, as shown in diagram, fig. 7. The line of sight from the “levelled” theodolite fell

FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

upon the points B, B, at an altitude, making allowance for refraction, equal to that of the observer at T. Now the points B, B, being three miles from T, would have been the square of three, or nine times 8 inches, or 6 feet below the line of sight, C, T, C, as seen in the following diagram, fig. 8.

FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.


 

EXPERIMENT 4.

On several occasions the six miles of water in the old Bedford Canal have been surveyed by the so-called “forward” process of levelling, which consisted in simply taking a sight of, say 20 chains, or 440 yards, noting the point observed, moving the instrument forward to that point, and taking a second observation; again moving the instrument forward, again observing 20 chains in advance, and so on throughout the whole distance. By this process, without making allowance for convexity, the surface of the water was found to be perfectly horizontal. But when the result was made known to several surveyors, it was contended “that when the theodolite is levelled, it is placed at right angles to the earth’s radius–the line of sight from it being a tangent; and that when it is removed 20 chains forward, and again ‘levelled,’ it becomes a second and different tangent; and that indeed every new position is really a fresh tangent–as shown in the diagram, fig. 9, T 1, T 2, and T 3, representing

FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

the theodolite levelled at three different positions, and therefore square to the radii 1, 2, 3. Hence, levelling forward in this way, although making no allowance for rotundity, the rotundity or allowance for it is involved in the process.” This is a very ingenious and plausible argument, by which the visible contradiction between the theory of rotundity and the results of practical levelling is explained; and many excellent mathematicians

p. 19

and geodesists have been deceived by it. Logically, however, it will be seen that it is not a proof of rotundity; it is only an explanation or reconciliation of results with the supposition of rotundity, but does not prove it to exist. The following modification was therefore adopted by the author, in order that convexity, if it existed, might be demonstrated. A theodolite

FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

was placed at the point A, in fig. 10, and levelled; it was then directed over the flag-staff B to the cross-staff C–the instrument A, the flag-staff B, and the cross-staff C, having exactly the same altitude. The theodolite was then advanced to B, the flag-staff to C, and the cross-staff to D, which was thus secured .as a continuation of one and the same line of sight A, B, C, prolonged to D, the altitude of D being the same as that of A, B, and C. The theodolite was again moved forward to the position C, the flag-staff to D, and the cross-staff to the point E–the line of sight to which was thus again secured as a prolongation of A, B, C, D, to E. The process was repeated to F, and onwards by 20 chain lengths to the end of six miles of the canal, .and parallel with it. By thus having an object between the theodolite and the cross-staff, which object in its turn becomes a test or guide by which the same line of sight is continued throughout the whole length surveyed, the argument or explanation which is dependent upon the supposition of rotundity, and that each position of the theodolite is a different tangent, is completely destroyed. The result of this peculiar or modified survey, which has been several times repeated, was that the line of sight and

p. 20

the surface of the water ran parallel to each other; and as the. line of sight was, in this instance, a right line, the surface of the water for six miles was demonstrably horizontal.

This mode of forward levelling is so very exact and satisfactory, that the following further illustration may be given with

advantage. In fig. 11, let A, B, C, represent the first position, respectively of the theodolite, flag-staff, and cross-staff; B, C, D, the second position; C, D, E, the third position; and D, E, F, the fourth; similarly repeated throughout the whole distance surveyed.

The remarks thus made in reference to simple “forward” levelling, apply with equal force to what is called by surveyors the “back-and-fore-sight” process, which consists in reading backwards a distance equal to the distance read forwards. This plan is adopted to obviate the necessity for calculating, or allowing for the earth’s supposed convexity. It applies, however, just the same in practice, whether the base or datum line is horizontal or convex; but as it has been proved to be the former, it is evident that “back-and-fore-sight” levelling is a waste of time and skill, and altogether unnecessary. Forward

p. 21

levelling over intervening test or guide staves, as explained by the diagram, fig. 11, is far superior to any of the ordinary methods, and has the great advantage of being purely practical§ and not involving any theoretical considerations. Its adoption along the banks of any canal, or lake, or standing water of any kind, or even along the shore of any open sea, will demonstrate to the fullest satisfaction of any practical surveyor that the surface of all water is horizontal.


EXPERIMENT 5.

Although the experiments already described, and many similar ones, have been tried and often repeated, first in 1838, afterwards in 1844, in 1849, in 1856, and in 1862, the author was induced in 1870 to visit the scene of his former labours, and to make some other (one or more) experiment of so simple a character that no error of complicated instrument or process of surveying could possibly be involved. He left London (for Downham Market Station) on Tuesday morning, April 5, 1870, .and arrived at the Old Bedford Sluice Bridge, about two miles from the station, at twelve o’clock. The atmosphere was remarkably clear, and the sun was shining brightly on and against the western face of the bridge. On the right hand side of the arch a large notice-board was affixed (a table of tolls, &c., for navigating the canal). The lowest edge of this board was 6 feet 6 inches above the water, as shown at B, fig. 12.

FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

A train of several empty turf boats had just entered the

p. 22

canal from the River Ouse, and was about proceeding to Romsey, in Huntingdonshire. An arrangement was made with the “Captain” to place the shallowest boat the last in the train; on the lowest part of the stern of this boat a good telescope was fixed–the elevation being exactly 18 inches above the water. The sun was shining strongly against the white notice-board, the air was exceedingly still and clear, and the surface of the water “smooth as a molten mirror;” so that everything was extremely favourable for observation. At 1.15, p.m., the train of boats started for Welney. As the boats receded the notice-board was kept in view, and was plainly visible to, the naked eye for several miles; but through the telescope it was distinctly seen throughout the whole distance of six miles. But on reaching Welney Bridge, a very shallow boat was procured, and so fixed that the telescope was brought to within 8 inches of the surface of the water; and still the bottom of the notice-board was clearly visible. The elevation of the telescope being 8 inches, the line of sight would touch the. horizon, if convexity exists, at the distance of one statute mile;. the square of the remaining five miles, multiplied by 8 inches, gives a curvature of 16 feet 8 inches, so that the bottom of the notice-board–6 feet 6 inches above the water–should have been 10 feet 2 inches below the horizon, as shown in fig. 13–

FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

[paragraph continues] B, the notice-board; H, the horizon; and T, the telescope.

 


 

EXPERIMENT 6.

The following important experiment has recently been tried at Brighton, in Sussex. On the new or Western Pier a good theodolite was fixed, at an elevation of 30 feet above the water, and directed to a given point on the pier at Worthing, a distance of at least ten statute miles. Several small yachts and other vessels were sailing about between the two piers, one of which was brought to within a few yards of the Brighton Pier, and directed to sail as nearly as possible in a straight line towards the pier at Worthing; when the top of the mast, which scarcely reached the theodolite, was observed to continue below the line of sight throughout the whole distance, as shown in fig. 14–A,

FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

representing the theodolite, and B, the pier at Worthing. From which it is concluded that the surface of the water is horizontal throughout the whole length of ten miles. Whereas, if the earth is a globe, the water between the two piers would be an arc of a circle (as shown in fig. 15), the centre of which would

FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

be 16 feet 8 inches higher than the two extremities, and the vessel starting. from A, would ascend an inclined plane, rising

p. 24

over 16 feet, to the summit of the arc at C, where the mast-head would stand considerably above the line of sight. From this point the vessel would gradually descend to the point B, at Worthing. As no such behaviour of the vessel was observed, the ten miles of water between the two piers must be horizontal.


EXPERIMENT 7.

The sea horizon, to whatever distance it extends to the right and left of an observer on land, always appears as a perfectly straight line, as represented by H, H, in fig. 16. Not only does

FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

it appear to be straight as far as it extends, but it may be proved to be so by the following simple experiment. At any altitude above the sea-level, fix a long board–say from 6 to 12 or more feet in length–edgewise upon tripods, as shown in fig. 17. Let

FIG. 17.
FIG. 17.

the upper edge be smooth, and perfectly levelled. On placing the eye behind and about the centre of the board B, B, and looking over it towards the sea, the distant horizon will be observed to run perfectly parallel with its upper edge. If the eye be now directed in an angular direction to the left and to the right,

p. 25

there will be no difficulty in observing a length of ten to twenty miles, according to the altitude of the position; and this whole distance of twenty miles of sea horizon will be seen as a perfectly straight line. This would be impossible if the earth were a globe, and the water of the sea convex. Ten miles on each side would give a curvature of 66 feet (102 x 8 = 66 feet 8 inches), and instead of the horizon touching the board along its whole length, it would be seen to gradually decline from the centre C, and to be over 66 feet below the two extremities B, B, as shown in fig. 18. Any vessel approaching from the left would be seen to

FIG. 18.
FIG. 18.

ascend the inclined plane H, B, C, and on passing the centre would descend from C towards the curvating horizon at H. Such a phenomenon is never observed, and it may be fairly concluded that such convexity or curvature does not exist.

 


 

EXPERIMENT 8.

A very striking illustration of the true form of the sea horizon may be observed from the high land in the neighbourhood of the head of Portsmouth Harbour. Looking across Spithead to the Isle of Wight, the base or margin of the island, where water and land come together, appears to be a straight line from east to west, a length of twenty-two statute miles. If a good

p. 26

theodolite is directed upon it, the cross-hair will show that the. land and water line is perfectly horizontal, as shown in fig. 19.

FIG. 19.
FIG. 19.

FIG. 20.
FIG. 20.

If the earth is globular, the two ends east and west of the Isle of Wight would be 80 feet below the centre, and would appear in the field of view of the theodolite as represented in fig. 20. As a proof that such would be the appearance, the same instrument directed upon any object having an upper outline curved in the smallest degree, will detect and plainly show the curvature in relation to the cross-hair a b; or the levelled board employed in experiment 7, fig. 18, will prove the same condition to exist; viz., that the margin of the Isle of Wight is, for twenty-two miles, a perfectly straight line; and instead of curvating downwards 80 feet each way from the centre, as it certainly would if convexity existed, it is absolutely horizontal.

From the lighthouse on Bidstone Hill, near Liverpool, the. whole length of the Isle of Man, on a clear day and with a good telescope, is distinctly visible, and presents the same horizontal base line as that observed in the Isle of Wight.

From the high land near Douglas harbour, Isle of Man, the whole length of the coast of North Wales is often plainly visible to the naked eye–a distance extending from the point of Ayr, at the mouth of the River Dee, towards Holyhead, not

p. 27

less than fifty miles. Whatever test has been employed, the line, where the sea and the land appear to join, is always found to be perfectly horizontal, as shown in the following diagram; fig. 21.

FIG. 21.
FIG. 21.

whereas, if the earth is spherical, and therefore the surface of all water convex, such an appearance could not exist. It would of necessity appear as shown in fig. 22.

FIG. 22.
FIG. 22.

A line stretched horizontally before the observer would not only show the various elevations of the land, but would also show the declination of the horizon H, H, below the cross-line S, S. The fifty miles length of the Welsh coast seen along the horizon in Liverpool Bay, would have a declination from the centre of at least 416 feet (252 x .8 inches = 416 feet 8 inches). But as such declination, or downward curvation, cannot be detected, the conclusion is logically inevitable that it has no existence. Let the reader seriously ask whether any and what reason exists in Nature to prevent the fall of more than 400 feet being visible to the eye, or incapable of detection by any optical or mathematical means whatever. This question is especially important when it is considered that at the same distance, and on the upper outline of the same land, changes of level of only a few yards extent are quickly and unmistakably perceptible.

p. 28

[paragraph continues] If he is guided by evidence and reason, and influenced by a love of truth and consistency, he cannot longer maintain that the earth is a globe. He must feel that to do so is to war with the evidence of his senses, to deny that any importance attaches to fact and experiment, to ignore entirely the value of logical process, and to cease to rely upon practical induction.


 

EXPERIMENT 9.

The distance across St. George’s Channel, between Holyhead and Kingstown Harbour, near Dublin, is at least 60 statute miles. It is not an uncommon thing for passengers to notice, when in, and for a considerable distance beyond the centre of the Channel, the Light on Holyhead Pier, and the Poolbeg Light in Dublin Bay, as shown in fig. 23. The Lighthouse on Holyhead

FIG. 23.
FIG. 23.

[paragraph continues] Pier shows a red light at an elevation of 44 feet above high water; and the Poolbeg Lighthouse exhibits two bright lights at an altitude of 68 feet; so that a vessel in the middle of the Channel would be 30 miles from each light; and allowing the observer to be on deck, and 24 feet above the water, the horizon on a globe would be 6 miles away. Deducting 6 miles from 30, the distance from the horizon to Holyhead, on the one hand, and to Dublin Bay on the other, would be 24 miles. The square of 24, multiplied by 8 inches, shows a declination of 384 feet. The altitude of the lights in Poolbeg Lighthouse is 68 feet; and of the red light on Holyhead Pier, 44 feet. Hence, if the earth were a globe, the former would always be

p. 29

[paragraph continues] 316 feet and the latter 340 feet below the horizon, as seen in the following diagram, fig. 24. The line of sight H, S, would be a

FIG. 24.
FIG. 24.

tangent touching the horizon at H, and passing more than 300 feet over the top of each lighthouse.

Many instances could be given of lights being visible at sea for distances which would be utterly impossible upon a globular surface of 25,000 miles in circumference. The following are examples:–

“The coal fire (which was once used) on the Spurn Point Lighthouse, at the mouth of the Humber, which was constructed on a good principle for burning, has been seen 30 miles off.” 1

Allowing 16 feet for the altitude of the observer (which is more than is considered necessary, 2 10 feet being the standard; but 6 feet may be added for the height of the eye above the deck), 5 miles must be taken from the 30 miles, as the distance of the horizon. The square of 5 miles, multiplied by 8 inches, gives 416 feet; deducting the altitude of the light, 93 feet, we have 323 feet as the amount this light should be below the horizon.

p. 30

The above calculation is made on the supposition that statute miles are intended, but it is very probable that nautical measure is understood; and if so, the light would be depressed fully 600 feet.

The Egerö Light, on west point of Island, south coast of Norway, is fitted up with the first order of the dioptric lights, is visible 28 statute miles, and the altitude above high water is 154 feet. On making the proper calculation it will be found that this light ought to be sunk below the horizon 230 feet.

The Dunkerque Light, on the south coast of France, is 194 feet high, and is visible 28 statute miles. The ordinary calculation shows that it ought to be 190 feet below the horizon.

The Cordonan Light, on the River Gironde, west coast of France, is visible 31 statute miles, and its altitude is 207 feet, which would give its depression below the horizon as nearly 280 feet.

The Light at Madras, on the Esplanade, is 132 feet high, and is visible 28 statute miles, at which distance it ought to be beneath the horizon more than 250 feet.

The Port Nicholson Light, in New Zealand (erected in 1859), is visible 35 statute miles, the altitude being 420 feet above high water. If the water is convex it ought to be 220 feet below the horizon.

The Light on Cape Bonavista, Newfoundland, is 150 feet above high water, and is visible 35 statute miles. These figures will give, on calculating for the earth’s rotundity, 491 feet as the distance it should be sunk below the sea horizon.

The above are but a few cases selected from the work referred to in the note on page 29. Many others could be given equally important, as showing the discrepancies

p. 31

between the theory of the earth’s rotundity and the practical experience of nautical men.

The only modification which can be made in the above calculations is the allowance for refraction, which is generally considered by surveyors to amount to one-twelfth the altitude. of the object observed. If we make this allowance, it will reduce the various quotients so little that the whole will be substantially the same. Take the last case as an instance. The altitude of the light on Cape Bonavista, Newfoundland, is 150 feet, which, divided by 12, gives 13 feet as the amount to be deducted from 491 feet, making instead 478 feet, as the degree of declination.

Many have urged that refraction would account for much of the elevation of objects seen at the distance of several miles. Indeed, attempts have been made to show that the large flag at the end of six miles of the Bedford Canal (Experiment 1, fig. 2, p. 13) has been brought into the line of sight entirely by refraction. That the line of sight was not a right line, but curved over the convex surface of the water; and the well-known appearance of an object in a basin of water, has been referred to in illustration. A very little reflection, however, will show that the cases are not parallel; for instance, if the object (a shilling or other coin) is placed in a basin without water there is no refraction. Being surrounded with atmospheric air only, and the observer being in the same medium, there is no bending or refraction of the eye line. Nor would there be any refraction if the object and the observer were both surrounded with water. Refraction

p. 32

can only exist when the medium surrounding the observer is different to that in which the object is placed. As long as the shilling in the basin is surrounded with air, and the observer is in the same air, there is no refraction; but whilst the observer remains in the air, and the shilling is placed in water, refraction exists. This illustration does not apply to the experiments made on the Bedford Canal, because the flag and the boats were in the same medium as the observer–both were in the air. To make the cases parallel, the flag or the boat should have been in the water, and the observer in the air; as it was not so, the illustration fails. There is no doubt, however, that it is possible for the atmosphere to have different temperature and density at two stations six miles apart; and some degree of refraction would thence result; but on several occasions the following steps were taken to ascertain whether any such differences existed. Two barometers, two thermometers, and two hygrometers, were obtained, each two being of the same make, and reading exactly alike. On a given day, at twelve o’clock, all the instruments were carefully examined, and both of each kind were found to stand at the same point or figure: the two, barometers showed the same density; the two thermometers the same temperature; and the two hygrometers the same degree of moisture in the air. One of each kind was then taken to the opposite station, and at three o’clock each instrument was carefully examined, and the readings recorded, and the observation to the flag, &c., then immediately taken. In a short time afterwards the two sets of observers met each other about midway on the northern

p. 33

bank of the canal, when the notes were compared, and found to be precisely alike–the temperature, density, and moisture of the air did not differ at the two stations at the time the experiment with the telescope and flag-staff was made. Hence it was concluded that refraction had not played any part in the observation, and could not be allowed for, nor permitted to influence, in any way whatever, the general result.

In 1851, the author delivered a course of lectures in the Mechanics’ Institute, and afterwards at the Rotunda, in Dublin, when great interest was manifested by large audiences; and he was challenged to a repetition of some of his experiments–to be carried out in the neighbourhood. Among others, the following was made, across the Bay of Dublin. On the pier, at Kingstown Harbour, a good theodolite was fixed, at a given altitude, and directed to a flag which, earlier in the day, had been fixed at the base of the Hill of Howth, on the northern side of the bay. An observation was made at a given hour, and arrangements had been made for thermometers, barometers, and hygrometers–two of each–which had been previously compared, to be read simultaneously, one at each station. On the persons in charge of the instruments afterwards meeting, and comparing notes, it was found that the temperature, pressure, and moisture of the air had been alike at the two points, at the time the observation was made from Kingstown Pier. It had also been found by the observers that the point observed on the Hill of Howth had precisely the same altitude as that of the theodolite on the pier, and that, therefore, there was no

p. 34

curvature or convexity in the water across Dublin Bay. It was, of course, inadmissible that the similarity of altitude at the two places was the result of refraction, because there was no difference in the condition of the atmosphere at the moment of observation.

The following remarks from the Encyclopædia Brittanica–article, “Levelling“–bear on the question:–

“We suppose the visual ray to be a straight line, whereas on account of the unequal densities of the air at different distances from the earth, the rays of light are incurvated by refraction. The effect of this is to lessen the difference between the true and apparent levels, but in such an extremely variable and uncertain manner that if any constant or fixed allowance is made for it in formula or tables, it will often lead to a greater error than what it was intended to obviate. For though the refraction may at a mean compensate for about one-seventh of the curvature of the earth, it sometimes exceeds one-fifth, and at other times does not amount to one-fifteenth. We have, therefore, made no allowance for refraction in the foregone formulæ.”

It will be seen from the above that, in practice, refraction need not be allowed for. It can only exist when the line of “sight passes from one medium into another of different density; or where the same medium differs at the point of observation and the point observed. If we allow for the amount of refraction which the ordnance surveyors have adopted, viz., one-twelfth of the altitude of the object observed, and apply it to the various experiments made on the Old Bedford Canal, it will make very little difference in the actual results. In the experiment, fig. 3 for

p. 35

instance, where the top of the flag on the boat should have been 11 feet 8 inches below the horizon, deducting one-twelfth for refraction, would only reduce it to a few inches less than 10 feet.

Others, not being able to deny the fact that the surface of the water in the Old Bedford and other canals is horizontal, have thought that a solution of the difficulty was to be found in supposing the canal to be a kind of “trough” cut into the surface of the earth; and have considered that although the earth is a globe, such a canal or “trough” might exist on its surface as a chord of the arc terminating at each end. This, however, could only be possible if the earth were motionless. But the theory which demands rotundity of the earth also requires rotary motion, and this produces centrifugal force. Therefore the centrifugal action of the revolving earth would, of necessity, throw the waters of the surface away from the centre. This action being equal .at equal distances, and being retarded by the attraction of gravitation (which the theory includes), which is also equal at equal distances, the surface of every distinct and entire mass of water must stand equi-distant from the earth’s centre, and, therefore, must be convex, or an arc of a circle. Equi-distant from a centre means, in a scientific sense, “level.” Hence the necessity for using the term horizontal to distinguish between “level” and “straight.”


 

EXPERIMENT 10.

If we stand upon the deck of a ship, or mount to the mast-lead, or ascend above the earth in a balloon and look over the

p. 36

sea, the surface appears as a vast inclined plane rising up from beneath us, until in the distance it reaches the level of the eye, and intercepts the line-of-sight.

 

FIG. 25.
FIG. 25.

If a good plane mirror be held vertically in the opposite direction, the horizon will be reflected as a well defined mark or line across the centre, as represented in fig. 25, H, H, the sea horizon, which rises and falls with the observer, and is always on a level with his eye. If he takes a position where the water surrounds him–as, on the deck or the mast-head of a ship out of sight of land, or on the summit of an island far from the mainland–the surface of the sea appears to rise up on all sides equally, and to surround him like the walls of an immense amphitheatre. He seems to be in the centre of a large concavity–a vast watery basin–the circular edge of which expands or contracts as he takes a higher or lower position. This appearance is so. well known to sea-going travellers that nothing more need be said in its support; but the appearance from a balloon is only familiar to a very few observers, and therefore it will be useful to quote the words of some of those who have written upon the subject.

“THE APPARENT CONCAVITY OF THE EARTH AS SEEN FROM A BALLOON.–A perfectly-formed circle encompassed the visibly; planisphere beneath, or rather the concavo-sphere it might now be called, for I had attained a height from which the earth assumed a regularly hollowed or concave appearance–an optical illusion which increases as you recede from it. At the greatest elevation I attained, which was about a mile-and-a-half, the appearance of the world around me assumed a shape or form like that which is made by placing two watch glasses together

p. 37

by their edges, the balloon apparently in the central cavity all the time of its flight at that elevation.”–Wise’s Aëronautics.

“Another curious effect of the aërial ascent was that the earth, when we were at our greatest altitude, positively appeared concave, looking like a huge dark bowl, rather than the convex sphere such as we naturally expect to see it. . . . The horizon always appears to be on a level with our eye, and seems to rise as we rise, until at length the elevation of the circular boundary line of the sight becomes so marked that the earth assumes the anomalous appearance as we have said of a concave rather than a convex body.”–Mayhew’s Great World of London.

“The chief peculiarity of a view from a balloon at a consider-able elevation, was the altitude of the horizon, which remained practically on a level with the eye, at an elevation of two miles, causing the surface of the earth to appear concave instead of convex, and to recede during the rapid ascent, whilst the horizon and the balloon seemed to be stationary.”–London Journal, July 18th, 1857.

Mr. Elliott, an American aëronaut, in a letter giving an account of his ascension from Baltimore, thus speaks of the appearance of the earth from a balloon:–

“I don’t know that I ever hinted heretofore that the aëronaut may well be the most sceptical man about the rotundity of the earth. Philosophy imposes the truth upon us; but the view of the earth from the elevation of a balloon is that of an immense terrestrial basin, the deeper part of which is that directly under one’s feet. As we ascend, the earth beneath us seems to recede–actually to sink away–while the horizon gradually and gracefully lifts a diversified slope, stretching away farther and farther to a line that, at the highest elevation, seems to close with the sky. Thus, upon a clear day, the

p. 38

aëronaut feels as if suspended at about an equal distance between the vast blue oceanic concave above and the equally expanded terrestrial basin below.”

During the important balloon ascents, recently made for scientific purposes by Mr. Coxwell and Mr. Glaisher, of the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, the same phenomenon was observed.

“The horizon always appeared on a level with the car.”–See Mr. Glaisher’s Report, inLeisure Hour,” for October 11, 1862.

“The plane of the earth offers another delusion to the traveller in air, to whom it appears as a concave surface, and who surveys the line of the horizon as an unbroken circle, rising up, in relation to the hollow of the concave hemisphere, like the rim of a shallow inverted watch-glass, to the height of the eye of the observer, how high soever he may be–the blue atmosphere above closing over it like the corresponding hemisphere reversed.”–Glaisher’s Report, inLeisure Hour,” for May 21, 1864.

The appearance referred to in the several foregoing extracts is represented in the following diagram, fig. 26.

FIG. 26.
FIG. 26.

[paragraph continues] The surface of the earth C, D, appears to rise up to the

p. 39

level of the observer in the car of the balloon; and at the same time, the sky A, B, seems to descend and to meet the earth at the horizon H, H.


 

EXPERIMENT 11.

On the eastern pier at Brighton (Sussex) a large wooden quadrant was fixed on a stand, the upper surface placed square to a plumb line, and directed towards the east, then to the south, and afterwards to the west., On looking over this upper surface the line of sight in each case seemed to meet the horizon, H, H, as shown in fig. 27. The altitude of the quadrant was

FIG. 27.
FIG. 27.

[paragraph continues] 34 feet; hence, if the earth is a globe, the water would have curvated downwards from the pier, the horizon would have been more than seven miles away, and 34 feet below the surface immediately beneath the observer; which depression, added to the elevation of the quadrant on the pier, would give 68 feet as the amount the horizon H, H, would have been below the line of sight A, B, as shown in the following diagram, fig. 28.

FIG. 28.
FIG. 28.

To touch the horizon on a convex surface the line of sight,

p. 40

[paragraph continues] A C, C B, would have to “dip” in the direction C, H; as no such “dip” of the eye line is required, convexity cannot exist.

In the case of the balloon at an altitude of two miles, the horizon would have been 127 miles away, and more than 10,000. feet below the summit of the arc of water underneath the balloon, and over 20,000 feet below the line of sight A, B, as shown in fig. 29; and the “dip” C, H, from C, B, to the horizon

FIG. 29.
FIG. 29.

[paragraph continues] H, would be so great that the aëronaut could not fail to observe it; instead of which he always sees it “on a level with his eye,” “rising as he rises,” and “at the highest elevation, seeming to close with the sky.”

The author has seen and tested this apparent rising of the water and the sea horizon to the level of the eye, and to an eye-line at right angles to a plumb-line, from many different places–the high ground near the race-course, at Brighton, in Sussex, from several hills in the Isle of Wight; various places near Plymouth, looking towards the Eddystone Lighthouse; the “Steep Holm,” in the Bristol Channel; the Hill of Howth, and “Ireland’s Eye,” near Dublin; various parts of the Isle of Man, “Arthur’s Seat,” near Edinburgh; the cliffs at Tynemouth; the rocks at Cromer, in Norfolk; from the top of Nelson’s Monument, at Great Yarmouth; and from many other elevated

p. 41

positions. But in Ireland, in Scotland, and in several parts of England, he has been challenged by surveyors to make use of the theodolite, or ordinary “spirit level,” to test this appearance of the horizon. It was affirmed that, through this instrument, when “levelled,” the horizon always appeared below the cross-hair, as shown in fig. 30–C, C, the cross-hair, and H, H, the horizon.

 

FIG. 30.
FIG. 30.

FIG. 31.
FIG. 31.

 

In every instance when the experiment was tried, this appearance was found to exist; but it was noticed that different instruments gave different degrees of horizontal depression below the cross-hair. The author saw at once that this peculiarity depended upon the construction of the instruments. He ascertained that in those of the very best construction, and of the most perfect adjustment, there existed a certain degree of refraction, or, as it is called technically, “collimation,” or a slight divergence of the rays of light from the axis of the eye, on passing through the several glasses of the theodolite. He therefore obtained an iron tube, about 18 inches in length; one end was closed, except a very small aperture in the centre; and at the other end cross-hairs were fixed. A spirit level was then attached, and the whole carefully adjusted. On directing it, from a considerable elevation, towards the sea,

p. 42

and looking through the small aperture at one end, the cross-hair at the opposite end was seen to cut or to fall close to the horizon, as shown at fig. 31. This has been tried in various places, and at different altitudes, and always with the same result; showing clearly that the horizon visible below the cross-hair of an ordinary levelling instrument is the result of refraction, from looking through the various glasses of the telescope; for on looking through an instrument in every respect the same in construction, except being free from lenses, a different result is observed, and one precisely the same as that seen from a balloon, from any promontory, and in the experiment at Brighton, shown in fig. 27, p. 39.

These comparative experiments cannot fail to satisfy any unbiassed observer that in every levelling instrument where lenses are employed, there is, of necessity, more or less divergence of the line of sight from the true or normal axis; and that however small the amount–perhaps inappreciable in short lengths of observation–it is considerable in distances of several miles. Every scientific surveyor of experience is fully aware of this and other peculiarities in all such instruments, and is always ready to make allowances for them in important surveys. As a, still further proof of this behaviour of the telescopic levelling instruments, the following simple experiment may be tried. Select a piece of ground–a terrace, promenade, line of railway, or embankment, which shall be perfectly horizontal for, say, five hundred yards. Let a signal staff, 5 feet high, be erected at one end, and a theodolite or spirit level fixed and carefully adjusted to exactly the

p. 43

same altitude at the other end. The top of the signal will then be seen a little below the cross-hair, although it has the same actual altitude, and stands upon the same horizontal foundation. If the positions of the signal staff and the spirit level be then reversed, the same result will follow.

Another proof will be found in the following experiment. Select any promontory, pier, lighthouse gallery, or small island, and, at a considerable altitude, place a smooth block of wood or stone of any magnitude; let this be “levelled.” If, then, the observer will place his eye close to the block, and look along its surface towards the sea, he will find that the line of sight will touch the distant horizon. Now let any number of spirit levels or theodolites be properly placed, and accurately adjusted; and it will be found that, in every one of them, the same sea horizon will appear in the field of view considerably below the cross-hair; thus, proving that telescopic instrumental readings are not the same as those of the naked eye.

In a work entitled “A Treatise on Mathematical Instruments,” by J. F. Heather, M.A., of the Royal Military College, Woolwich, published by Weale, High Holborn, London, elaborate directions are given for examining, correcting, and adjusting the collimation, &c.; and at page 103, these directions are concluded by the following words: “The instrument will now be in complete practical adjustment for any distance not exceeding ten chains (220 yards), the maximum error being only 1/1000 of a foot.

At this stage of the enquiry two distinct questions naturally arise: First, if the earth is a plane, why does the sea at all

p. 44

times appear to rise to the axis of the eye? and secondly, would not the same appearance exist if the earth were a globe? It is a simple fact, that two lines running parallel for a considerable distance will, to an observer placed between them at one end, appear to converge or come together at the other end. The top and bottom and sides of a long room, or an equally bored tunnel, will afford a good example of this appearance; but perhaps a still better illustration is given by the two metallic lines of a long portion of any railway. In fig. 32, let

FIG. 32.
FIG. 32.

[paragraph continues] A, B, and C, D, represent the two lines of a straight portion of horizontal railway. If an observer be placed at G, he will see the two lines apparently meeting each other towards H, from the following cause:–Let G represent the eye looking, first, as far only as figs. 1 and 2, the space between 1 and 2 will then be seen by the eye at G, under the angle 1, G, 2. On looking as far as figs. 3 and 4, the space between 3 and 4 will be seen under the diminished angle 3, G, 4. Again on looking forward to the points 5 and 6, the space between the rails would be represented by the angle 5, G, 6; and, as will at once be seen, the greater the distance observed, the more acute the angle at the eye, and therefore the nearer together will the rails appear. Now if one of these rails should be an arc of a circle and diverge from the other, as in the diagram fig. 33, it is evident that the

p. 45

FIG. 33.
FIG. 33.

effect upon the eye at G, would be different to that shown by the diagram fig. 32. The line G, 4, would become a tangent to the arc C, D, and could never approach the line G, H, nearer than the point T. The same may be said of lines drawn to 6, opposite 5, and to all greater distances–none could rise higher than the tangent point T. Hence allowing A, B, to represent the sky, and C, D, the surface of the water of a globe, it is evident that A, B, could appear to decline or come down to the point H, practically to a level with the eye at G; but that C, D, could never, by the operation of any known law of optics, rise to the line G, H, and therefore any observation made upon a globular surface, could not possibly produce the effect observed from a balloon, or in any experiment like that represented in .

From the foregoing details the following arguments may be constructed:–

Right lines, running parallel with each other, appear to approach in the distance.

The eye-line, and the surface of the earth and sky, run parallel with each other;

Ergo, the earth and sky appear to approach in the distance.

p. 46

Lines which appear to approach in the distance are parallel lines.

The surface of the earth appears to approach the eye-line;

Ergo, the surface of the earth is parallel with the eye-line.

The eye-line is a right line.

The surface of the earth is parallel or equi-distant;

Ergo, the surface of the earth is a right line–a plane.


 

EXPERIMENT 12.

On the shore near Waterloo, a few miles to the north of Liverpool, a good telescope was fixed, at an elevation of 6 feet above the water. It was directed to a large steamer, just leaving the River Mersey, and sailing out to Dublin. Gradually the mast-head of the receding vessel came nearer to the horizon, until, at length, after more than four hours had elapsed, it disappeared. The ordinary rate of sailing of the Dublin steamers was fully eight miles an hour; so that the vessel would be, at least, thirty-two miles distant when the mast-head came to the horizon. The 6 feet of elevation of the telescope would require three miles to be deducted for convexity, which would leave twenty-nine miles, the square of which, multiplied by 8 inches, gives 560 feet; deducting 80 feet for the height of the main-mast, and we find that, according to the doctrine of rotundity, the mast-head of the outward bound steamer should have been 480 feet below the horizon.

Many other experiments of this kind have been made upon sea-going steamers, and always with results entirely incompatible with the theory that the earth is a globe.


 

EXPERIMENT 13.

The following sketch, fig. 34, represents a contracted section of the London and North-Western Railway, from London to

FIG. 34.
FIG. 34.

[paragraph continues] Liverpool, through Birmingham. The line A, B, is the surface, with its various inclines and altitudes, and C, D, is the datum line from which all the elevations are measured; H, is the station at Birmingham, the elevation of which is 240 feet above the datum line C, D, which line is a continuation of the level of the River Thames at D, to the level of the River Mersey, at C. The direct length of this line is 180 miles; and it is a right or absolutely straight line, in a vertical sense, from London to Liverpool. Therefore, the station at Birmingham is 240 feet above the level of the Thames, continued as a right line throughout the whole length of the railway. But if the earth is a globe, the datum line will be the chord of the arc D, D, D, fig. 35, and the summit of the arc at D, will be 5400 feet above

FIG. 35
FIG. 35

p. 48

the chord at C; added to the altitude of the station H, 240 feet, the Birmingham station, H, would be, if the earth is a globe, 5640 feet above the horizontal datum D, D, or vertically above the Trinity high water mark, at London Bridge. It is found, practically, and in fact, not to be more than 240 feet; hence the theory of rotundity must be a fallacy. Sections of all other railways will give similar proofs that the earth is in. reality a plane.

The tunnel just completed under Mont Fréjus, affords a very striking illustration of the truth. that the earth is a plane, and not globular. The elevation above the sea-level of the entrance at Fourneaux, on the French side of the Alps, is 3946 feet, and of the entrance on the Italian side, 4381 feet. The length of the tunnel is 40,000 feet, or nearly eight English statute miles. The gradient or rise, from the entrance on the French side to the summit of the tunnel, is 445 feet; and on the opposite side, 10 feet. It will be seen from the following account, given by M. Kossuth, 1 that the geodetic operations were carried on in connection with a right line, as the axis of the tunnel, and therefore with a horizontal datum which is quite incompatible with the doctrine of rotundity. That the earth is a plane is involved in all the details of the survey, as the following quotation will show:–

“The observatories placed at the two entrances to the tunnel were used for the necessary observations, and each observatory contained an instrument constructed for the purpose. This instrument was placed on a pedestal of masonry, the top of which was covered with a horizontal slab of marble, having

p. 49

engraved upon its surface two intersecting lines, marking a point which was exactly in the vertical plane containing the axis of the tunnel. The instrument was formed of two supports fixed on a tripod, having a delicate screw adjustment. The telescope was similar to that of a theodolite provided with cross-webs, and strongly illuminated by the light from a lantern, concentrated by a lens and projected upon the cross-webs. In using this instrument in checking the axis of the gallery at the northern entrance, for example; after having proved precisely that the vertical plane, corresponding with the point of intersection of the lines upon the slab, also passed through the centre of the instrument, a visual line was then conveyed to the station at Lochalle (on the mountain), and on the instrument being lowered, the required number of points could be fixed in the axis of the tunnel. In executing such an operation, it was necessary that the tunnel should be free from smoke or vapour. The point of collimation was a plummet, suspended from the roof of the tunnel by means of an iron rectangular frame, in one side of which a number of notches were cut, and the plummet shifted from notch to notch, in accordance with the signals of the operator at the observatory. These signals were given to the man whose business it was to adjust the plummet, by means of a telegraph or a horn. The former was found invaluable throughout all these operations.

“At the Bardonnecchia (Italian) entrance, the instrument employed in setting out the axis of the tunnel was similar to the one already described, with the exception that it was mounted on a little carriage, resting on vertical columns that were erected at distances 500 metres apart in the axis of the tunnel. By the help of the carriage, the theodolite was first placed on the centre line approximately. It was then brought exactly into line by a fine adjustment screw, which moved the

p. 50

eye-piece without shifting the carriage. In order to understand more clearly the method of operating the instrument, the mode of proceeding may be described. In setting out a prolongation of the centre line of the tunnel, the instrument was placed upon the last column but one; a light was stationed upon the last column, and exactly in its centre; and 500 metres ahead a trestle frame was placed across the tunnel. Upon the horizontal bar of this trestle several notches were cut, against which a light was placed, and fixed with proper adjusting screws. The observer standing at the instrument, caused the light to move upon the trestle frame, until it was brought into an exact line with the instrument and the first line; and then the centre of the light was projected with a plummet. In this way the exact centre was found. By a repetition of similar operations the vertical plane containing the axis of the tunnel was laid out by a series of plummet lines. During the intervals that elapsed between consecutive operations with the instrument, the plummets were found to be sufficient for maintaining the direction in making the excavation. To maintain the proper gradients in the tunnel, it was necessary, at intervals, to establish fixed levels, deducing them by direct levelling from standard bench marks, placed at short distances from the entrance. The fixed level marks, in the inside of the tunnel, are made upon stone pillars, placed at intervals of 25 metres, and to these were referred the various points in setting out the gradients.”

The theodolite “was placed on a pedestal of masonry, the top of which was covered with a horizontal slab of marble, having engraved upon its surface two intersecting lines, marking a point which was exactly in the vertical plane containing the axis of the tunnel.” This slab was the starting point–the datum which determined the

p. 51

gradients. Its horizontal surface, prolonged through the mountain, passed 445 feet below the summit of the tunnel, and 435 feet below the entrance on the Italian side. This entrance was 4381 feet above the sea, and 435 feet above the horizontal marble slab on the French side. But, if the earth is a globe, the datum line from this horizontal slab would be a tangent, from which the sea-level would curvate downwards to the extent of 42 feet; and the summit of the tunnel, instead of being 10 feet above the Italian entrance, would, of necessity, be 52 feet above it. It is not so, and therefore the datum line is not a tangent, but runs parallel to the sea; the sea-level not convex, and the earth not a globe. This will be rendered plain by the following diagram, fig. 36.

FIG. 36.

FIG. 36.

Let A represent the summit of the tunnel, and A, T, the axis or centre determined by the theodolite T; S, the marble

p. 52

slab; and D, S, the datum line, running parallel with the sea-level H, H. B, the Italian entrance, at an elevation of 435 feet above D, S, and 4381 feet above the surface of the sea, H, H; A, the summit of the tunnel, 445 feet above the French entrance at T, the same above the datum line D, S; and 4391 feet above the sea-line, H, H. If the earth is a globe, the line, D, S, would be a tangent to the sea at H, S, from which point the sea surface would curvate 52 feet downwards, as shown in diagram, fig. 37. Hence, the elevation of the tunnel at B,

FIG. 37.

FIG. 37.

would be 52 feet higher above the sea at H, than it is known to be; because taking D, S, as a tangent, and the length of the tunnel being 8 miles–82 miles x 8 inches = 52 feet.

Thus, in a length of 8 statute miles of the most skilful engineering operations, carried on by the most accomplished

p. 53

scientific men, there is a difference between theory and practice of 52 feet! Rather than such a reproach should attach to some of the most eminent practical engineers of the day–those especially who have, with such consummate skill and perseverance, completed one of the most gigantic undertakings of modern times–let the false idea of rotundity in the earth be entirely discarded, and the simple truth acknowledged, that the earth is a plane. It is adopted in practice, why should it be denied in the abstract? Why should the education given in our schools and universities include a forced recognition of a theory which, when practically applied, must ever be ignored and contradicted?

The completion of the great ship canal, which connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Gulf of Suez, on the Red Sea, furnishes another instance of entire discrepancy between the theory of the earth’s rotundity and the results of practical engineering. The canal is 100 English statute miles in length, and is entirely without locks; so that the water within it is really a continuation of the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea. “The average level of the Mediterranean is 6 inches above the Red Sea; but the flood tides in the Red Sea rise 4 feet above the highest, and its ebbs fall nearly 3 feet below the lowest in the Mediterranean.” The datum line is 26 feet below the level of the Mediterranean, and is continued horizontally from one sea to the other; and throughout the whole length of the work, the surface of the water runs parallel with this datum, as shown in the following section, fig. 38, published by the authorities. A, A, A, A, is the

p. 54

FIG. 38.
FIG. 38.

surface of the canal, passing through several lakes, from one sea to the other; D, D, the bed of the canal, or horizontal datum line to which the various elevations of land, &c., are referred, but parallel to which stands the surface of the water throughout the entire length of the canal; thus proving that the half-tide level of the Red Sea, the 100 miles of water in the canal, and the surface of the Mediterranean Sea, are a continuation of one and the same horizontal line. If the earth is globular, the water in the centre of the canal, being 50 miles from each end, would be the summit of an arc of a circle, and would stand at more than 1600 feet above the Mediterranean and Red Seas (502 x 8 inches = 1666 feet 8 inches), as shown in diagram, fig. 39. A, the Mediterranean Sea; B, the Red

FIG. 39.
FIG. 39.

[paragraph continues] Sea; and A, C, B, the arc of water connecting them; D, D, the horizontal datum, which, if the earth is globular, would really be the chord of the arc, A, C, B.

The bed of the Atlantic Ocean, from Valencia (western coast of Ireland) to Trinity Bay, Newfoundland, as surveyed for the laying of the cable, is another illustration or

p. 55

proof that the surface of the great waters of the earth is horizontal, and not convex, as will be seen by the following diagram, contracted from the section, published October 8,

FIG. 40.
FIG. 40.

[paragraph continues] 1869, by the Admiralty. C, D, is the horizontal datum line, and A, B, the surface of the water, for a distance of 1665 nautical, or 1942 statute miles. At about one-third the distance from A, Newfoundland, the greatest depth is found–2424 fathoms; the next deepest part is 2400 fathoms; at about two-thirds the distance from A, towards B, Ireland, while in the centre, the depth is less than 1600 fathoms; whereas, if the water of the Atlantic is convex, the centre would stand 628,560 feet, or nearly 120 miles, higher than the two stations, Trinity Bay and Valencia; and the greatest depth would be in the centre of the Atlantic Ocean, where it would be 106,310 fathoms, instead of 1550 fathoms, which it is proved to be by actual soundings. Fig. 41 shows the arc of water which would exist,

FIG. 41.
FIG. 41.

in relation to the horizontal datum line, between Ireland and Newfoundland, if the earth is a globe. Again, if the

p. 56

water in the Atlantic Ocean is convex–a part of a great sphere of 25,000 miles circumference–the horizontal datum line would be a chord to the great arc of water above it; and the distance across the bed of the Atlantic would therefore be considerably less than the distance over the surface. The length of the cable which was laid in 1866, notwithstanding the known irregularities of the bed of the Ocean, would be less than the distance sailed by the paying-out vessel, the “Great Eastern;” whereas, according to the published report, the distance run by the steamer was 1665 miles, while the length of cable payed out was 1852 miles.

It is important to bear in mind that all the foregoing remarks and calculations are made in connection with the fact that the datum line, to which all elevations and depressions are referred, is horizontal, and not an arc of a circle. For many years past, all the great surveys have been made on this principle; but that no doubt may exist in the mind of the reader, the following extract is given from the Standing Orders of the Houses of Lords and Commons on Railway Operations, for the Session of 1862: 1

“The section shall be drawn to the same horizontal scale as the plan, and to a vertical scale of not less than one inch to every one hundred feet; and shall show the surface of the ground marked on the plan, the intended level of the proposed work, the height of every embankment, and the depth of every cutting, and a datum horizontal line, which shall be the same throughout the whole length of the work; or any branch thereof

p. 57

respectively; and shall be referred to some fixed point . . . . near either of the termini. (See line D, D; fig. 2.)”

On the page opposite that of the above Standing Order, a section is given to illustrate the meaning of the words of the order–special reference being made to the line D, D, as showing what is intended by the words “datum horizontal line.” The drawing of the section there given, and which is insisted upon by Government, is precisely the same as the sections recently published of all the great railways, of the Suez Canal, of the bed of the Atlantic Ocean, taken for the purposes of laying the Electric Cable, and of many other works connected with railways deep-sea ordnance, and other surveying operations. In all these extensive surveys the doctrine of rotundity is, of necessity, entirely ignored; and the principle that the earth is a plane is practically adopted, and found to be the only one consistent with the results, and agreeing with the plans of the great surveyors and engineers of the day.

 


EXPERIMENT 14.

If a good theodolite is placed on the summit of Shooter’s Hill, in Kent, and levelled, the line of sight, on being directed to Hampstead Hill, will cut the cross on St. Paul’s Cathedral, and fall upon a part of Hampstead Hill, the altitude of which is the same as that of Shooter’s Hill. The altitude of each of these points is 412 feet above the Trinity high water mark, at London Bridge. The distance from Shooter’s Hill to St. Paul’s Cathedral is 7 statute miles, and from St. Paul’s to Hampstead Hill, 5 miles. If the earth is a globe, the line of sight from the

p. 58

[paragraph continues] “levelled” theodolite would be a tangent, below which St. Paul’s cross would be 32 feet, and Hampstead Hill 96 feet. The highest point of Hampstead Hill is 430 feet, which we find, on making the proper calculation, would be 78 feet below the summit of Shooter’s Hill; whereas, according to the Ordnance Survey, and as may be proved by experiment, the three points are in the same direct line; again demonstrating that the earth is a plane.

The diagrams, figs. 42 and 43, will show the difference

FIG. 42.
FIG. 42.

between the theory of rotundity and the results of actual survey. A, represents Hampstead Hill; C, St. Paul’s cross; B, Shooter’s Hill; and D, D, the datum line–the Trinity high water mark. In fig. 43, A, B, C, and D, D, represent the same points respectively as in fig. 42.

FIG. 43.
FIG. 43.

p. 59

In the account of the trigonometrical operations in France, by M. M. Biot and Arago, it is stated that the light of a powerful lamp, with good reflectors, was placed on a rocky summit, in Spain, called Desierto las Palmas, and was distinctly seen from Camprey, on the Island of Iviza. The elevation of the two points was nearly the same, and the distance between them nearly 100 miles. If the earth is a globe, the light on the rock in Spain would have been more than 6600 feet, or nearly one mile and a quarter, below the line of sight.

“The length of some of the sides of the great triangles (in the English survey) is upwards of 100 miles; and many means were employed to render the stations visible from each other at such great distances. The oxy-hydrogen, or Drummond’s Light, was employed in some instances; but a heliostat, for reflecting the sun’s rays in the direction of the distant observer, was more generally and successfully employed. Lieutenant-Colonel Portlock, R.E., who observed the station on Precelly, a mountain in South Wales, from the station on Kippure, a mountain about 10 miles south-west of Dublin–the distance between the stations being 108 miles–says: ‘For five weeks I watched in vain; when, to my joy, the heliostat blazed out in the early beams of the rising sun, and continued visible as a bright star the whole day.'” 1

Many other very long “sights” have been taken by surveyors of different countries, which upon a globe of 25,000 miles in circumference, would have been quite impossible; but with the demonstrated fact that the earth is a plane, are practical and consistent.


EXPERIMENT 15.

From the first floor of the “grand” hotel, opposite the new or western pier, at Brighton, in Sussex, a well-constructed instrument, called a “Clinometer,” was “levelled,” and directed towards the sea. The water seemed to ascend as an inclined plane, until it intercepted the line of sight at the point H 1, as shown in fig. 44. On taking the instrument to a higher

FIG. 44.
FIG. 44.

position, again “levelling,” and looking over the sea, the surface seemed to ascend a second time, until it met the eye-line at H 2. The instrument was then taken to the highest room, and again directed to the sea, when the uprising surface was again seen to meet the eye-line, as at the point H 3 As already shown, these results are precisely those which an optical or perspective law produces, in connection with a right line, or a plane surface. Upon a globular surface, the appearance would necessarily be as seen in fig. 45. From the position A, the

p. 61

FIG. 45.
FIG. 45.

horizon would be seen at H 1, and at a considerable angle downwards; from B, the horizon would be at H 2; and from C, at II 3; and the downward angle, or “dip,” would increase as the altitude of the observer increased. But as nothing of the kind is anywhere to be seen, and the directly contrary at all times visible, we are compelled by the force of practical evidence to deny the existence of rotundity, and to declare that, “to all intents and purposes,” absolutely and logically, beyond doubt, THE EARTH IS A VAST IRREGULAR PLANE.FE OLD TESTIf Earth were a ball 25,000 miles in circumference as NASA and modern astronomy claim, spherical trigonometry dictates the surface of all standing water must curve downward an easily measurable 8 inches per mile multiplied by the square of the distance. This means along a 6 mile channel of standing water, the Earth would dip 6 feet on either end from the central peak. Every time such experiments have been conducted, however, standing water has proven to be perfectly level. Diagram of Rowbotham’s experiment on the Bedford Level, taken from his book “Earth not a globe”


aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaTHE MAGIC PENDULUM. Science has created instruments that can detect the weakest forces and the smallest substances. “Science” says the earth spins at a blazing 1040 mph at the equator, tapering off to 0 mph at the “poles” This incredible motion surpasses the speed of sound. We have devices that can detect humidity, temperature, altitude, atmospheric pressure, etc. We have devices that can detect the mineral content of the ground, CT scans, Xrays, radio waves, etc. We can detect anything even the rapid spin of the earth, right.
The name of the sole instrument that “science” has to detect the spin of the earth is a Foucault Pendulum. Its a large piece of metal suspended from a cable. This is the device that “science” points to with incredible confidence in detecting the spin of the earth, but does it? This device is merely a large piece of metal suspended by a cable or cord. The inconsistent clockwise swing rotation is what they claim is the only device that can detect the spin of the earth. But why metal, magnetism maybe.
You would think before science would hang such a responsibility onto this crude device to be the sole detection device of the spin of the earth, they would have done a real scientific study on all possible variables affecting the pendulum. Why not use a large marble stone pendulum? they claim its the weight and length of arc that causes the pendulum to swing straight but the earth spins under it; giving the illusion the pendulum is swinging clockwise, when its the earth spinning underneath the pendulum.
The reality is a metal pendulum could be influenced by all kinds of electromagnetic forces, they know exist and we have devices that can detect these forces. Also there is the vortex drag draft hypothesis, this is another known force that can affect a moving object. These are just some examples of many of the known and unknown variables that could affect a large pendulum swinging.
Soon experiments on all of these variables will be performed and if any of these or other variables have any affect on the pendulum then it puts into question whether the Foucault Pendulum is a reliable detection device of the spin of the earth. When any other influence is found to affect the pendulum, then it negates the FP as a faulty spin of the earth detection device, it must then be thrown out as a spin of the earth detection device. Which leads the science community with nothing else to show the gullible masses a spin detection device.
In short without the Foucault Pendulum, science has nothing that can detect or show the spin of the earth. Occams Razor would dictate that the simplest answer is that there is no spin to the earth. Its just a matter of a short time these experiments using science to reveal the fallacies of “science”. And to expose their unscientific fraudulent misidentified force affects and lack of scientific protocols and methodology. Its just a matter of time when they have…nothing..
Pendulums have been used for thousands of years by all sorts of questionable professions to detect shit. Its considered in the realms of magic, sorcery, and divination. Treasure hunters used them with questionable results to find treasure. Healers wave them over folks to give them ideas on whats wrong with them. If you were to present a pendulum to science as a detection device of anything other than the spin of the earth they would laugh you out the door. Its ironic they point to the Foucault Pendulum as their proof of the spin of the earth. Its just a magic trick to deceive those who are gullible enough to believe it. Break the spell and realize their is nothing else they have to detect the incredible force of the spin of the earth, because there is none.


 

 

How Did The Kings of Astronomy Get it So Wrong?
Part I:
Copernicus – Newton
It may be boldly asked where can the man be found, possessing the extraordinary gifts of Newton, who could suffer himself to be deluded by such a hocus-pocus, if he had not in the first instance willfully deceived himself;

FE Graham postOnly those who know the strength of self-deception, and the extent to which it sometimes trenches on dishonesty, are in a condition to explain the conduct of Newton and of Newton’s school. To support his unnatural theory Newton heaps fiction upon fiction, seeking to dazzle where he cannot convince.

In whatever way or manner may have occurred this business, I must still say that I curse this modern history theory of Cosmology, and hope that perchance there may appear, in due time, some young scientists of genius, who will pick u courage enough to upset this universally disseminated delirium of lunatics”. ~ Johann Goethe

****

This is mostly taken from the work of Gerard Hickson in his 1922 book, “Kings Dethroned”. He lays clearly, concisely and irrefutably how astronomer by astronomer in the 16th and 17th centuries began in error by the way they measured distance from Earth to Sun, Moon and planets and then subsequently came up with preposterous theory after theory, over decades, to cover up there errors, that continues to this very day.

From Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Halley, Newton in Europe across the pond in the 1900’s to Einstein and NASA, astronomy has used the same errors in calculating distance of stars and planets in what is called Astrometry.

fe 1In the 1920’s, Gerrard Hickson proves conclusively, using their own geometry, math and theories of heliocentrism, gravity, relativity, etc., are gravely in gross error.

In no uncertain terms this work blows apart the Sun centered, Earth a sphere rotating, gravity based heliocentric theory that has been taught in every classroom on our flat plane Earth for the past century or more.

Enjoy!
Kings Dethroned; A History of the Evolution of Astronomy from the time of the Roman Empire up to the present day; showing it to be an amazing set of blunders founded upon an error made in the Second Century B C.

https://ia902705.us.archive.org/…/kingsdethronedhi00hickric…

****

It will be remembered how Hipparchus failed to get an angle to the stars 2,000 years ago, and arrived at the conclusion that they must be infinitely distant; and we have seen how that hypothesis has been handed down to us through all the centuries without question.

~ G. Hickson ~

http://aplanetruth.info/…/1833-how-did-the-kings-of-astron…/


 The Natural Physics of Water Prove Earth Flat

It is part of the natural physics of water and other fluids to always find their level and remain flat. If disturbed in any way, motion ensues until the flat level is resumed. If dammed up then released, the nature of all liquids is to quickly flood outwards taking the easiest course towards finding its new level.

“The upper surface of a fluid at rest is a horizontal plane. Because if a part of the surface were higher than the rest, those parts of the fluid which were under it would exert a greater pressure upon the surrounding parts than they receive from them, so that motion would take place amongst the particles and continue until there were none at a higher level than the rest, that is, until the upper surface of the whole mass of fluid became a horizontal plane.” -W.T. Lynn, “First Principles of Natural Philosophy”

If the Earth is an extended flat plane, then this fundamental physical property of fluids finding and remaining level is consistent with experience and common sense. If, however, the Earth is a giant sphere tilted on its vertical axis spinning through never-ending space then it follows that truly flat, consistently level surfaces do not exist here! Moreover, if the Earth is spherical then it follows that the surface of all Earth’s water, including the massive oceans, must maintain a certain degree of convexity. But this is contrary to the fundamental physical nature of water to always be and remain level!

FE flat water“The surface of all water, when not agitated by natural causes, such as winds, tides, earthquakes etc. is perfectly level. The sense of sight proves this to every unprejudiced and reasonable mind. Can any so-called scientist, who teaches that the earth is a whirling globe, take a heap of liquid water, whirl it round, and so make rotundity? He cannot. Therefore it is utterly impossible to prove that an ocean is a whirling rotund section of a globular earth, rushing through ‘space’ at the lying-given-rate of false philosophers.” -William Thomas Wiseman, “The Earth An Irregular Plane”

If we were living on a whirling ball-Earth, every pond, lake, marsh, canal and other large body of standing water, each part would have to comprise a slight arc or semi-circle curveting downwards from the central summit. For example, if the ball-Earth were 25,000 miles in circumference as NASA and modern astronomers say, then spherical trigonometry dictates the surface of all standing water must curve downwards an easily measureable 8 inches per mile multiplied by the square of the distance. This means along a 6 mile channel of standing water the Earth would dip 6 feet on either end from the central peak. To the benefit of true science, and to the detriment of modern astronomy’s pseudo-science, such an experiment can and has been tested.


Astronomers say the magical magnetism of gravity is what keeps all the oceans of the world stuck to the ball-Earth. They say that because the Earth is so massive, by virtue of this mass it creates a magic force able to hold people, oceans and atmosphere tightly clung to the underside FE water cityof the spinning ball. Unfortunately, however, they cannot provide any practical example of this on a scale smaller than the planetary. For example, a spinning wet tennis ball has the exact opposite effect of the supposed ball-Earth! Any water poured over it simply falls off the sides, and giving it a spin results in water flying off 360 degrees like a dog shaking after a bath. Astronomers concede the wet tennis ball example displays the opposite effect of their supposed ball-Earth, but claim that at some unknown mass, the magic adhesive properties of gravity suddenly kick in allowing the spinning wet tennis ball-Earth to keep every drop of “gravitized” water stuck to the surface. Again, their theory flies in the face of all practical evidence, but they have been running with it for 500 years, so why stop now?

From Benton Harbor,MI to the Chicago,IL is a staggering 60 miles. According to the calculations of a globe with a 25,000 mile circumference the estimated curvature would be 2,400 feet. The Willis Tower stands the tallest at 1,451 feet and should be well below the horizon. Yet the entire skyline is visible. Also there is no observable curvature yet skeptics claim that we can see ships sail over the horizon? The reflection of the sun on the water would not travel to the feet of the observer if the water was indeed convex. And finally you can see the light following the sun which would only be possible if the sun was illuminating locally. 4 flat Earth proofs in one picture.


Admiral Byrd’s 1950’s TV interview reveals a secret. He references something which is almost non-sensible on a globe earth but makes a lot of logical sense on a flat earth map which I believed he used to circumnavigate the Antarctic region. He mentions an area as large as the USA not yet seen and yet he knows how large it is and where it is. The “How” reveals his secret.

Captain Bird FE MAP BACK GROUNDThe Earth is Not Moving!
The heliocentric theory, literally “flying” in the face of direct observation, experimental evidence and common sense, maintains that the ball-Earth is spinning around its axis at 1,000 miles per hour; revolving around the Sun at 67,000 miles per hour; while the entire solar system rotates around the Milky Way galaxy at 500,000 miles per hour; and the Milky Way speeds through the expanding Universe at over 670,000,000 miles per hour; yet no one in history has ever felt a thing!

We can feel the slightest breeze on a summer’s day, but never one iota of air displacement from these incredible speeds! Heliocentrists claim with a straight face that their ball-Earth spins at a constant velocity dragging the atmosphere in such a manner as to perfectly cancel all centrifugal, gravitational, and inertial forces so we do not feel the tiniest bit of motion, perturbation, wind or air resistance! Such back-peddling, damage-control reverse-engineered explanations certainly stretch the limits of credibility and the imagination, leaving much to be desired by discerning minds.

If the Earth and atmosphere are constantly revolving Eastwards at 1,000 mph, how is it that clouds, wind, and weather patterns casually and unpredictably go every which way, often travelling in opposing directions simultaneously?

Why can we feel the slightest Westward breeze but not the Earth’s incredible supposed 1,000 mph Eastward spin!? And how is it that the magic velcro of gravity is strong enough to drag miles of Earth’s atmosphere along, but weak enough to allow little bugs, birds, clouds and planes to travel freely unabated in any direction?


FE trueman showPeople are all up in arms about this Flat Earth subject causing division and strife. OK. Please show me a few examples from Scripture where truth didn’t cause some sort of uproar. LOL! Nearly every prophet in the Bible was MURDERED because they told the truth. Look at what happened to Yeshua and His disciples for simply telling the truth. Truth almost always causes trouble. Because most don’t ever want to hear it. Now, I’m not saying that Flat Earth IS the truth. But as we are only on a quest to find out if it IS or not – testing ALL things just as the Scriptures say we should – the same nonsense is manifesting as what happens when you tell them that X-mess and Ishtar Day have NOTHING whatsoever to do with our Savior. They don’t want to hear that they’ve been participating in lies most of their lives. This subject is generating similar responses. Only with this deal, it’s ramped up several notches on the psychosis meter. So much so that the very mention of simply wanting to explore the POSSIBILITIES absolutely sends people through the roof with amazing expressions of substantial cognitive dissonance combined with healthy doses of accusation, ridicule, mocking and slander! – See more at: http://www.testingtheglobe.com/testimonies.html#sthash.b7hpmNrv.dpuf

fe explaPost your evidence, proofs and photos, videos and memes

Some FAQ.

1. Can you fall off the edge?
No, you can’t fall off the edge, there is an ice wall 100’s of feet high in some places, at the edge of our habitat. Either the edge stops at a thermal barrier, where matter is too cold for life, Or there is a possible infinite plane beyond this edge. Some theorize a dome incassing.. Earth is not a planet. Earth is a plane. A plane of existence, a realm.

2. Do photos from space prove Earth is a sphere?
All photos of Earth from space are fake.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QciLVJZNq4c

3. Why the lie?
Check Out This Video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_qiCB0gniP8

4. How does gravity work on the FE?
Gravity does not exist, gravity as you know it is an effect of the electron-magnetic force.

In this article CERN has omitted gravity.
http://home.web.cern.ch/about/physics/standard-model

Gravity – Properly Defined on Flat Earth –

The calculated “Force of Gravity” Requires Relativity Mass calculations between two bodies.. Therefore the “Gravity” is the attractive force based on an SI Units (International System of Units) of Measurement.. of a relative mass.

The following further defines the Metric of Gravity in an example based on the Gravity of Hydrogen:

You measured in mole relative to the Avogadro Constant, Carbon-12. The mole is a unit of measurement for amount of substance, equal in mass (in grams) to the combined mass (in amu) of the atoms of the constituent molecules of the substance multiplied by Avogadro’s number. The Mass of 1 Hydrogen, with a proton(+) and electron(-) is 0.01 mole.
For example, the chemical equation 2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O implies that .2 mol of dihydrogen (H2) and .1 mol of dioxygen (O2) react to form .2 mol of water (H2O). The mole may also be used to express the number of atoms, ions, or other elementary entities in a given sample of any substance.
The number of molecules in a mole (known as Avogadro’s constant) is defined such that the mass of one mole of a substance, expressed in grams, is equal to the mean molecular mass of the substance. For example, the mean molecular mass of natural water is about 18.015, therefore, one (1) mole of water has a mole mass of about 18.015 mole grams.
So 1 hydrogen atom = 1.008 amu of mass. 1 mole of hydrogen = {1.008 x [6.022 141 29(27) x 10^23]} amu = 1.008 grams. 1 hydrogen atom = {1.008 / [6.022 141 29(27) x 10^23]} grams.

Unless it’s an ion of Hydrogen with no Electron (-) making it a Cation having a +1 charge.. The mass of one mole of a substance depends not only on its molecular formula, but also on the proportion of the isotopes of each element present in it. The Hydrogen Cation(+) still has FORCE, yet it m is a Relative Gravity Metric calculation is less than (0).. So the matrix of gravity can be zero, or even a counter force, a negative gravity metric. That force being Energy we call “Electric Charge”of three states (+) (=) (-)

To calculate the Gravity of a Hydrogen atom you can do three equations with Relative SI Units of Metric equivalent conversion depending on the state of Hydrogen. So 1 Hydrogen can have three possible gravitational states.

The key here is Gravity is a MEASUREMENT..
Based on SI units of Relative MASS.. and Mole potential, the MASS of one Hydrogen is interdependent on the CHARGE of it’s Atomic Mass. The independent stand alone force of the Hydrogen elements Atomic Mass is it’s Electric Charge state. and requires no Si Unit of measurement.

So you demonstrated that Gravity is Calculation of Forces in SI Units that are Electric Charge based calculations.
which is Carbon Isotope based SI Measurement… Making a “Gravity” Standard Equivalent measurement constant of 6.67408 Relative to Carbon(12).

So in Conclusion..
Yes Gravity ‘Exists” as a standardized system of relativity measurement, relative to the Atomic Mass forces of Electric Charge, and the Magnetic Properties are interdependent on the State of the Element.

The Electromagnetic Spectrum. Electro = Electron exchange. Magnetic = Attraction between the negative and positive. Spectrum – The wavelengths of energy in different concentrations and densities.

So we are in a sea of fluctuating energy. If you have an empty space that is a ‘negative body’ and if you have a density of energy such as an electron, ‘positive body’ that has a higher density of energy than the negative body, it is drawn towards other higher densities of energy as its actually searching for the path of least resistance.

Two positive bodies are ‘attracted’ to each other as the higher energy density of both of them creates a larger negative entropy between them and falling into each other is the path of least resistance.. As the two higher energy densities approach and come closer that will increase momentum. As they reach maximum velocity and maximum energy potential with the minimum amount of space between them, they also reach maximum energy potential.

Upon approach or energy maximum the energy looks to continue on its path of least resistance in an altered direction reactionary to the combined forces. This is the ‘Dynamics’ The ‘Dynamo’ of positive and negative bodies always attracting and approaching and colliding and moving.

The combined Electrodynamic Electromagnetic Spectrum creates a Quantum flow of entanglement. So like if two electrons approach each other and their energy causes them to veer around each other than the path of least resistance is for them to spin or rotate around each other.

The centripetal force of the rotation gives of a higher vibration shell of energy from the combined forces. The two positive bodies rotating around each other in an orbital free fall have now formed a new negative entropy point in between them out of dynamic equilibrium, and the other shell of higher energy potential causes a torus effect on the central negative space where energy is drawn towards falling to the new center of negative space.

This shelling of energy is what everyone refers to as ‘gravity’ So we as people are a giant massive wad of structured electrodynamic energy potential. We have a greater she’ll of energy vibrating around our central mass. So we are attracted to the earth’s surface through this ‘pull’ of electrodynamic potential of our Electromagnetic Spectrum of energy vibration searching to fill the gaps of least negative entropy. ‘Gravity’ is not a force all its own but a Quantum byproduct of electromagnetism.

This is Coulombs law.
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/…/es…/Lesson-3/Coulomb-s-Law

5. How does the sun work on the FE?
The sun’s diameter is 33 miles and altitude is approx. 3000 miles. The sun works like a spotlight shining on about half of the earth while the parts that don’t get light is night. The sun orbits in circles around the flat earth. The moon is the same size and has a slower orbit when the moon gets in front of the sun is how the solar eclipse works.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XugZ9wGnk9M&feature=youtu.be
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GY0xhUOL3vM&app=desktop
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y5knH393h1c

6. Do ships on the horizon dip below the horizon?
Ships on the horizon get smaller as they get further away they do not go over the horizon. You can zoom in with a camera or binoculars and still see them.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VFhhCYYkILw

7. Do toilets flush the opposite direction in the southern hemisphere?
Toilets flush the way they were designed to flush. Has nothing to do with where they are flushed.

8. How does the lunar eclipse work on FE?

“The several cases above advanced are logically destructive of the notion that an eclipse of the moon arises from a shadow of the earth. As before stated, the earth is proved to be a plane, without motion, and always several hundred miles below the sun and moon, and cannot, by any known possibility come between them. It cannot therefore intercept the light of the sun, and throw its own shadow upon the moon. If such a thing were a natural possibility, how could the moon continue to shine during the whole or any considerable part of the period of its passage through the dark shadow of the earth? Refraction, or what has been called “Earth-light,” will not aid in the explanation; because the light of the moon is at such times “like the glowing heat of fire tinged with deep red.” “Reddish is not the word to express it, it was red- red hot.” “The reddish light made it, seem to be on fire.” “It looked like a fire smouldering in its ashes.” “Its tint was that of red-hot copper.” The sunlight is on an entirely different color to that of the eclipsed moon; and it is contrary to know optical principles to say that light when refracted or reflected, or both simultaneously, is thereby changed in color. If a light of a given color is seen through a great depth of a comparatively dense medium, as the sun is often seen in winter through the fog and vapor of the atmosphere, it appears of a different color, and generally of such as that which the moon so often gives during a total eclipse; but a shadow cannot produce any such effect, as it is, in fact, not an entity at all, but simply the absence of light.

From the facts and phenomena already advanced, we cannot draw any other conclusion than that the moon is obscured by some kind of semi-transparent body passing before it; and through which the luminous surface is visible; the luminosity changed in color by the density of the intervening object. This conclusion is forced upon us by the evidence but is not a reflector of the sun’s light, but absolutely self-luminous. Although this admission is logically compulsory, it will be useful and strictly Zetetic to collect all the evidence possible which bears upon it.

If light of any given colour is placed in the same way, the same colour of light will be reflected.”
~Samuel Rowbotham, Zetetic Astronomy
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kGGuxxOV964

9. What about the Coriolis effect?

Coriolis effect
The Coriolis effect Is of the electromagnetic force, not from the rotation of the Earth.
If the world is flat and electromagnetism is the underlying force holding everything together, than a ‘strait’ line magnetically would follow the curve. North will always be North of an Eastern arch tangent. The electromagnetism effects everything molecule in the euclidean space locking everything in the same magnetic revolution. You can think of it as a needle on a record. Does the needle stay on the record continuing on the curve? Or does the needle slide off tangent?

It also reinforces the Coriolis effect, as it can be demonstrated by the flight of a bullet.
The electromagnetism is pulling ionically or giving charge to the atoms of the bullet when traveling in the Eastern Direction, and therefore gives rise to the bullet with electromagnetic additive energy giving advantage to the rotation. While creating drag to the west.

The current theory is wrong on a spherical Earth. If the bullet travels East, the rotation of the Earth to the East should decrease the distance traveled for the bullet as the earth travels forward in the same direction as the bullet. However we see a bullet traveling East bound to actually Rise higher over a greater distance.

The current Coriolis theory claims it is the curvature of the Earth that explains this plus rotation.

However the curvature would be consistent in the current theory, so a bullet traveling in the western direction should fly further faster, traveling counter to the rotation. But, it doesn’t..it drops with the drag of the ionic flow when traveling west.

If you fire a bullet North or South you get the cross arch Coriolis tangent you are looking for with the strait road theory. A bullet traveling North-bound goes strait and the EM field rotates underneath it. The general relativity of the bullet traveling strait appears to arch counter to the FE Electromagnetic pull of the toroidal rotation of the electro-magnetic force.
10. What about the Foucault pendulum?

Foucault pendulum

The Foucault pendulum measures the electro-magnetic force double torus rotation.
The Foucault pendulum travels 11degrees per hour. The sun is traveling at 15 degrees per hour.
The Foucault pendulum is rotating electrodynamically as its mass of atoms is pulled at a constant by the square root of the Sun’s rotation plus Pi+Phi which gives you the drag variance.

You can verify this by calculating the variance in a full Foucault pendulum ‘day’ which takes ~32.7 hours multiply 24xPhi 1.617 will give you the reminder of ~8.8, the time variance between a solar day and the Foucault pendulum day (8.7)+ the Coriolis Effect for a total of 8.857 the atomic time calculation. Which is really just an addition of Phi to the 8.7 total. For ~8.8.

Keep in mind these calculations are supposed to be Cubic Euclidean Geometry equations and have been simplified for ease of comprehension.”

If light of any given color is placed in the same way, the same color of light will be reflected.” in the Eastern Direction, and therefore gives rise to the bullet with electromagnetic additive energy giving advantage to the rotation. While creating drag to the west.


 Click on image to see how you can prove to any one that the sun is very close and the same size like the moon

FE CREPUSCULAR WAVESNo star is more than 10,000 miles away, and the sun never more than 7,500. How did he prove that? Why, by triangulation, of course. The cccastronomers used the system suggested by Halley, but it was ridiculous. Mr. Hickson just made New York one end, and calculated from that. Had he been to his southern observation point? No, but he had made a model and worked it out from that.
A triangle must add up to 180 degrees. When laid out flat it is one-half of a circle of 360 degrees. By having two points known, a third can be determined.

http://aplanetruth.info/


NOTABLE HELIOCENTRIST EXPERIMENTS THAT *FAILED* TO DETECT ANY MOVEMENT OF THE EARTH AROUND THE SUN

For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men,who hold the truth in unrighteousness; Romans 1:18

There was a group of early “scientists” that decided that their heliocentric pronouncements would be proved and accepted. They conducted various experiments to prove that the earth moves around the sun. Unsurprisingly, these experiments FAILED–and they knew it–but they covered this information up. In their corrupt minds, heliocentrism had to disprove the Bible, no matter what the cost–so instead of being scientific and accepting that the earth does not move, they decided to hold the truth in unrighteousness. They suppressed the truth like any liar would. False science could not and can not prove the motion of the earth because it does not move. It is not a planet (“wanderer”). Those early false scientists are the authors of the textbooks that today’s “scientists” and authors consult. The students who have learned from them are worse off than they are (Matthew 23:15) because these students actually believe the earth moves whereas the original false scientists knew that they were wrong.

[The following is excerpted from The Basic Scientific Arguments for Geocentricity by Malcolm Bowden.]

ffffSCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENTS. Most scientists know about the Michelson-Morely experiment – that failed to detect any movement of the earth round the sun. This had to be overcome so the Fitzgerald-Lorentz shortening of the apparatus was proposed, and eventually the paradoxical Relativity Theory was invented by Einstein to overcome this problem. However, there are three other experiments that have been deliberately ignored by universities because they support geocentricity –

MangG1(a) The Michelson-Gale experiment (Reference – Astrophysical Journal 1925 v 61 pp 140-5 – I forgot to put this reference in my book!) This detected the aether passing the surface of the earth with an accuracy of 2% of the speed of the daily rotation of the earth! Thus, the Michelson-Morely experiment detected no movement of the earth around the sun, yet the Michelson-Gale experiment measured the earth’s rotation (or the aether’s rotation around the earth!) to within 2%! This surely speaks volumes for geocentricity.

(b) “Airey’s failure” (Reference – Proc. Roy. Soc. London v 20 p 35). Telescopes have to be very slightly tilted to get the starlight going down the axis of the tube because of the earth’s “speed around the sun”. Airey filled a telescope with water that greatly slowed down the speed of the light inside the telescope and found that he did not have to change the angle of the telescope. This showed that the starlight was already coming in at the correct angle so that no change was needed. This demonstrated that it was the stars moving relative to a stationary earth and FEGEM8.1not the fast orbiting earth moving relative to the comparatively stationary stars. If it was the telescope moving he would have had to change the angle.[emphasis BiblicalScholarship.net]

(c) The Sagnac experiment (Reference – Comptes Rendus 1913 v157 p 708-710 and 1410-3) Sagnac rotated a table complete with light and mirrors with the light being passed in opposite directions around the table between the mirrors. He detected the movement of the table by the movement of the interference fringes on the target where they were recombined. This proved that there IS an aether that the light has to pass through and this completely destroys Einstein’s theory of Relativity that says there is no aether. It is for this reason that this experiment is completely ignored by scientists. More recently Kantor has found the same result with similar apparatus.

All these experiments are never taught at universities, so consequently, scientists, including most Christian creationists, are ignorant of this evidence for geocentricity.


 


 

Hard mathematical evidence that the sun is infact very close above the earth
https://youtu.be/rPHckG3o6NQ

Must listen to this engineer if you still believe on a globe earth
https://youtu.be/qKdZQA9tA3E

Those who have more questions
http://ifers.ace.st/


FE NASA INFO


FE TIBET

In Tibetan astro science, two distinct flat-earth, stationary, geocentric cosmologies are recognized, both developed in India and later translated into Tibetan. The first is theAbhidharma system, expounded in the 4th or 5th century Indian text Abhidharmakosha(Treasury House of Knowledge) by Vasubandhu, and the Kalachakra system (Wheels of Time), whose root text was translated into Tibetan in 1027 A.D..
http://web.ccsu.edu/astronomy/tibetan_cosmological_models.htm
    Zetetic Astrology


We are dealing with high altitude drone and balloon Wars. It involves the combination of chemtrails for creating an atmosphere that will support electromagnetic waves, ground-based, electromagnetic field oscillators called gyrotrons, and ionospheric heaters. Particulates make directed energy weapons work better. It has to do with “steady state” and particle density for plasma beam propagation.

They spray barium powders and let it photo-ionize from the ultraviolet light of the sun. Then, they make an aluminum-plasma generated by “zapping” the metal cations that are in the spray with either electromagnetics from HAARP, the gyrotron system on the ground [Ground Wave Emergency Network], or high altitude balloon or drone-based lasers. The barium makes the aluminum-plasma more particulate dense. This means they can make a denser plasma than they normally could from just ionizing the atmosphere or the air.

More density [more particles] means that these particles which are colliding into each other will become more charged because there are more of them present to collide. What are they ultimately trying to do up there — is create charged-particle, plasma beam weapons.

Chemtrails are the medium – GWEN pulse radars, the various HAARPs, and space-based lasers are the method, or more simply:

Chemtrails are the medium — directed energy is the method.

Spray and Zap.

This system appears to be in Russia, Canada, the United States, and all of Europe. Exotic weapons can be mobile, stationary, land-based, or high altitude balloon or drone based.

It is an offensive and defensive system against EM attacks and missiles. It uses ionospheric particle shells as defense mechanisms [like a bug-zapper shell]* against missiles and EM attacks. That means they spray and then pump up the spray with electromagnetics. When these shells are created using the oscillating, electromagnetic, gyrotron stations, it “excludes” and displaces the background magnetic field. These shells can be layered one above another in a canopy fashion for extra protection from missiles. The chemtrail sprays have various elements in them like carbon which can used to absorb microwaves. Some of these sprays have metal flakes in them that make aerial craft invisible to radar. Spoofer sprays. Sprays like these can be used to create colorful, magnetized plasmas to cloak fighter jets.

There are high altitude baloon and drone based weapons involved. Activists are using meters and are getting readings of microwaves, x-rays, and some other kind of emission that they are not sure of, maybe a low-intensity laser.

They are also photographing gas plasma generation due to the heating of chemtrails by electromagnetics. The technical names for vertical and horizontal plasma columns are columnar focal lenses and horizontal drift plasma antennas. Various size of gas plasma orbs are associated with this technology. These orbs can be used as transmitters and receivers because they have great, refractory and optical properties. They also are capable of transmitting digital or analog sound. Barium, in fact, is very refractive — more refractive than glass.

What does that mean? Someone or someones are very involved in unconstitutional, domestic spying and the entrained plasma orbs carried on electromagnetic beams can be used for mind control programming. The satellites can be programmed to track and monitor various frequencies on different parts of your body. These electromagnetic beams carrying the gas plasma orbs stick due magnetic polarity and frequency mapping and tracking to people’s eyes, ears, temples, and private parts. A beam with entrained orbs carries pictures in each orb just like the different frames in a movie. It is a particle beam that is also a frequency weapon.

The high altitude baloons and drones download holographic mind control movies, pictures, sounds, and sensations to people through this technology. The Air Force has stated in “Air Force 2025” that their goal is to develop virtual and augmented reality mind control. Depending on the how the computer is programmed or depending on the mood or intent of the person interfacing with the technology, you can be probed, bothered, gaslighted, frightened, manipulated, electronically raped, or tortured. It scans your brain frequencies and deciphers your thoughts. The satellites track you by mapping your bioenergetic signature [body biometrics] and constantly scanning an area to find you.

We are the lab rats for this technology and something is very wrong in the military or intelligence branches somewhere. Because developmental projects in government and military are often so compartmentalized, I suppose someone could be using and developing this technology secretly and without authorization. Then again, behavioral and mind control programs were an authorized policy under MKULTRA. Our country has a history of experimenting on its citizens. We are talking about High altitude baloon mounted charged-particle frequency weapons attacking a person 24 hours a day. Psychotronic weapons are considered weapons of mass destruction by the U.N.

“HAARPs” can create earthquakes and can also x-ray the earth to find underground military bases, gold, or oil reserves. These ionospheric heaters can also operate as an over-the-horizon or under-the-ocean communications system. This system can control the weather or create disasters. Taken together with the aurora keyhole through-your-roof satellite surveillance system, Echelon electronic computer/phone sweeps, plasma-cloaked DOD Drug War helicopters and stealths, implants, and cameras on the street, it constitutes one, big flat earth under/in the dome/firmament control grid.

These weapons involve beams. Two beams overlapped will couple into a particle-ion beam that will bounce off of a remote target and send a holographic image back to the high altitude baloon for remote spying operations. When you cross two strong beams, you can supposedly* create scalar energies. These energies can be used as untraceable weapons for nuclear size explosions or for defense. These crossed-energies can be used to cause a person’s physical electrical system to fail or with a lower frequency, administer a kind of remote electro-shock. Visualize touching a positive and negative electric cable to each other on top of your head. Scalar energies can be utilized in hand-held military guns and on tanks. They can dud-out electronics or cause large, electrical blackouts. Scalar energies are practically impossible to shield against. You need lead, ceramics, and a deep underground facility to not be affected by these weapons. Or, you need to be up and above the field of battle.

People who are working on these issues hear tones and hums. If you hear persistent tones and static; have body vibrations, burning sensations, “bangs” to the head, neurological damage, or immune system damage; are hearing electronic voices or hearing the sound of a plasma; suffering from pains deep in your organs or constant headaches; or experiencing other anomalous activity then you may be being targeted by directed energy, mind control weapons. These weapons could be on helicopters, jets, stealth fighters, or on baloons. Directed energy beams and electromagnetic waves can be sent to you via hand-held devices or piggy-backed in on cell phone and satellite towers.

Is it possible that someone(s) are very afraid of coming famines and riots due to the ongoing, man-induced failure of the ecological system, and they are saturating the earth plane with chemtrails for large- scale, gas plasma mind control? Is this the last grasp for the world’s resources? Or, are they just control freaks and money mongers? Someone would like to get to that oil under the melting [due to chemtrail-trapped EM heat] Artic. And, I guess the Third World is not a part of this system. I don’t think that the developed nations are going to let them in on this either.

Any country that joins this NATO system will become mind-controlled and diseased due to the associated, intense, oscillating, electromagnetic fields, electromagnetic soup, and the poisonous, toxic chemtrails. Our DNA will break. We risk our plane earth messed up due to mucking around with the magnetic field through this military technology. Maybe, it is already messed up.

It constitutes U.S. global domination via NATO and the erosion of civil rights. According to Charlotte Iserbyt and Al Martin, there are ex-KGB and ex-STASI advising our new Office of Total Information Awareness. They are the ones creating our new internal passports [national ID]. And under “The Treaty on Open Skies,” we have overflights by Russian and German military. Who exactly is flying those plasma-cloaked craft that are seen all over this country and mistaken for UFOs by people who do not know about this aerial deception technology? Obviously, we have another “Project Paperclip” in the making. We can add the new thugs to the 2,000 Iraqi brought into country by Daddy Bush who are now living in Nebraska.

The elitist corporate government is going to hold the rest of us hostage with directed energy weapons in space, if the Policy for a New American Century group – PNAC – Bush and cronie think tank has their way, along with directed energy attacks against any country or citizen that they decide they do not like. These weapons can create climate war, weather war, mind war, cyber war, disease war, disaster war, and undetectable war. Taken together they can create economic war.

If this system is not stopped, it will kill billions due to aluminum and barium poisoning. It will kill billions due to crop failures and world-wide famine. It will cause heart attacks, strokes, and cancers. It will cause stillbirths, miscarriages, and infertility. The chemtrail sprays often have fungi, bacteria, viruses, dessicated red blood cells, crystalline substances, carbon, metal cations, lithium, other chemicals, heavy metals, and God knows what – probably smart dust, or nanocrap. Years of biowarfare testing on the American public is no big secret anymore. Spraying germs in the sky where they mutate due to the ultra-violet light — brillant plan, my man. Are we acceptable losses or is this by design?

I know that many of the major players have big investments in pharmaceutical companies, GM seeds [seeds that can grow in an electromagnetic soup], weapons and directed energy development contracts, oil contracts, genetic research, and mind control research. Some of these people have had a familial history of financial and policy support for population control, eugenics, Hitler, Mao, Stalin, Lenin, Marx, Pinochet, Hussein, and various other dictators. Some of the major players were the masterminds of the death squads in Central and South America. They stand to make a big profit on our death and disease. Just take a look at Rumsfield and Tamiflu.

I assume that they know the dangers of this system and that they take care to stay in their shielded, air-filtered offices, homes, bases, and cars. I assume they take chelating substances to remove the barium and aluminum from their bodies and minds. If not, then they really do not understand the far-ranging implications of this destructive system. Congress may not understand just what a terrible weapons system and control grid they are funding.

As I understand it, Tesla towers attached to deep-earth, free-energy taps are to be created over the 10-12 magnetic poles and the GWEN system phased-out. Has this already been done? This should allow total control of the earth through giant, Tesla death ray-guns. This natural, electromagnetic earth was not meant to be an un-natural dynamo to power man’s weapons or his utility companies.

Over-unity systems [Tesla devices]* are as of yet, another unexplored and probably not understood man-made energy. We should be very suspect of free energy. As we can see, the forms of man-made energy that have been created and used in the past have not been good for this plane earth. Maybe it is time to reconsider the options available to us through the development of crops for fuel, wind, solar, and water power. We need world-wide, different, more holistic, renewable, energy programs.

Is there any good news? Yes. There has been tons of particulate dumping through the spray operations for 8 years over the Americas, Europe, Scandinavia, Eastern Europe, and from what I can find out, over Russia. And, what goes around blows around, right? So, these substances are probably actually all over our plane earth. It sure makes a ton of sense to spray poisonous elements in 24 NATO countries and let the substances be carried around the earth on the jet streams to poison yourself, your enemies, and all neutral and non-combatent countries. Talk about making more enemies.

The water, air, and soil of all of these countries is so saturated with metal cations that these weapons freaks should be able to zap and mind f–k each other quite well now and as often as they wish. Once they have clobbered each other with light-saber beams for a few years and razed and scorched sections of the earth, they may start to realize that this foreign policy will lead to a defective human race and a rotten economy.

Do you think they will have knocked some sense into each other by then and will decide that non-proliferation and arms reduction is the more civilized and mature direction to take in world affairs? I doubt it, cause only idiots would have developed horrific, plane earth-killer weapons like these. But, I’ll bet the rest of the plane earth will finally rise up and tell these juvenile delinquents to quit playing with those rayguns right this second.


ioyiyoyi


500 year old map

real500 year old map


Selection_553


FE be_jnb


FE MAPP


FEchallengeryoungandoldIf you trust NASA then click on the picture for details


sea cabInternet cables are according to the flat earth map? Why? Costs?


Captain CookIn 1773 Captain Cook became the first modern explorer known to have breached the Antarctic Circle and reached the ice barrier. During three voyages, lasting three years and eight days, Captain Cook and crew sailed a total of 60,000 miles along the Antarctic coastline never once finding an inlet or path through or beyond the massive glacial wall! Captain Cook wrote: “The ice extended east and west far beyond the reach of our sight, while the southern half of the horizon was illuminated by rays of light which were reflected from the ice to a considerable height. It was indeed my opinion that this ice extends quite to the pole, or perhaps joins some land to which it has been fixed since creation.”


JohnRossOn October 5th, 1839 another explorer, James Clark Ross began a series of Antarctic voyages lasting a total of 4 years and 5 months. Ross and his crew sailed two heavily armored warships thousands of miles, losing many men from hurricanes and icebergs, looking for an entry point beyond the southern glacial wall. Upon first confronting the massive barrier Captain Ross wrote of the wall, “extending from its eastern extreme point as far as the eye could discern to the eastward. It presented an extraordinary appearance, gradually increasing in height, as we got nearer to it, and proving at length to be a perpendicular cliff of ice, between one hundred and fifty feet and two hundred feet above the level of the sea, perfectly flat and level at the top, and without any fissures or promontories on its even seaward face. We might with equal chance of success try to sail through the cliffs of Dover, as to penetrate such a mass.”


FE 100PROOFS
One Hundred Proofs that the Earth is not a Globe (William Carpenter) – 1895

FE BLUE BOOK
 TERRA FIRMA: THE EARTH NOT A PLANET. PROVED FROM SCRIPTURE, REASON, AND FACT. BY DAVID WARDLAW SCOTT – 1901

FE 200 PROOFS
 200 Proofs Earth is Not a Spinning Ball! – Eric Dubay

FE BOOK DURBANClick on picture to download the book


flat-bro


This clip looks into a new plasma field in space as well as the Van Allen plasma belts. I ask – How is it possible for metal space craft, astronauts and satellites to pass through these plasma fields? How is it possible that we have sent endless vehicles into space including the Apollo missions and never known about this “GLASS PLASMA WALL” located 7,200 miles away? Is it possible to send radio signals through plasma belts back


Flat Earth beliefs around the world:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flat_Earth

Flat Earth Bible:
https://www.lhup.edu/~dsimanek/febible.htm

Arguments for Geocentricity:
http://jesus-is-lord.com/geocentr.htm

Fair Education Foundation, Inc. on the Fixed Earth:
http://www.fixedearth.com/subject-areas.html

The Scriptural Basis For A Geocentric Cosmology:
http://hypertextbook.com/eworld/geocentric.shtml

The Flat Earth:
https://www.lhup.edu/~dsimanek/flat/flateart.htm

Observe Temperature, Wind and Wave Currents on the Flat Earth:
http://earth.nullschool.net/#current/ocean/surface/currents/overlay=sea_surface_temp/azimuthal_equidistant=12.83,93.80,111

– See more at: http://www.testingtheglobe.com/quest2.html#sthash.tQ3TvaZn.dpuf

Facebook group: flat earth

1892_standard_map_of_the_world_flat_earth_big_size

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