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DEVICE HAVING AN ARRANGEMENT OF MAGNETS
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2009-02-12
Inventor(s):     YILDIZ MUAMMER [TR] + (YILDIZ, MUAMMER)

Also published as: DE102007037186 // EP2153515
Cited documents: EP0088909 //    DE202005020288U // EP0501427 // DE2847618    // EP1489734

Abstract — The invention relates to a device having an arrangement of magnets for generating an alternating magnetic field that interacts with a stationary magnetic field. The device comprises a rotor (1) and a stator (2) disposed coaxially to a rotatably mounted shaft (5). The rotor (1) comprises one or more first magnet sequences and the stator (2) one or more second magnet sequences. The first and second magnet sequences each comprise two or more dipole magnets, the arrangement and orientation of which may vary.

Apparatus with an arrangement of magnets

The invention relates to an apparatus to the generation of a magnetic alternating field, which interacts with a stationary magnetic field.

The interaction of a stationary magnetic field and a magnetic alternating field becomes already utilized since longer, for example within the range of brushless DC motor and magnetic levitation transport systems.

The invention is the basis the object, an improved apparatus to the generation of a magnetic alternating field, which interacts with a stationary magnetic field to create.

This object becomes by apparatus with rotor and stator dissolved, which coaxial to rotatable stored shaft arranged are, whereby rotor one or more first magnet sequences and stator one or more second magnet sequences exhibits, whereby one or more first magnet sequences in each case two or more on outer surface coaxial to shaft oriented first circular cylinder arranged dipole magnets cover, whose dipole axles with a tangent include to the scope of the outer surface by a point, at which the dipole axles break through in each case the outer surface, in each case an inclination angle, which lies in a range of 14 degree to 90 degree, and which one or more second magnet sequences in each case two or more on one Outer surface coaxial to shaft oriented second circular cylinder arranged dipole magnets cover, whose dipole axles with a tangent include to the scope of the outer surface by a point, at which the dipole axles break through in each case the outer surface, in each case an inclination angle, which lies in a range of 14 degree to 90 degree, whereby exhibits the one or more in each case first magnet sequences and the one or more second magnet sequences regarding a vertical plane a pitch angle arranged to a shaft axis of the shaft, which lies in a range of 10 degree to 80 degree or of 280 degree to 350 degree, and whereby includes the one or more first magnet sequences and the one or more second magnet sequences an angle of attack, that in a range of 0 degree to 90 degree lies.

The formulations “their dipole axles with a tangent to the scope of the outer surface by a point, specified above, at which the dipole axles break through the outer surface, in each case an inclination angle in each case include, in a range of 14 the degree to 90 degree lie” are to be understood in such a way that each of the dipole magnets of the rotor and the stator can exhibit an individual inclination angle. The single limitation of the respective individual inclination angle is that it lies in a range of 14 degree to 90 degree. This covers the case that two exhibit or more dipole magnets the same inclination angle. So e.g. is it. also possible that all dipole magnets of the rotor and/or the stator exhibit the same inclination angle.

The formulation specified above “whereby the one or the more first magnet sequences and the one or more second magnet sequences regarding a vertical plane in each case a pitch angle arranged to a shaft axis of the shaft exhibit to understand in a range of 10 the degree to 80 degree or of 280 degree to 350 degree lie” is in such a way that each magnet sequence of the rotor and the stator can exhibit an individual pitch angle. The single limitation of the respective individual pitch angle is that it lies in a range of 10 degree to 80 degree or of 280 degree to 350 degree. This covers the case that two or more magnet sequences exhibit the same pitch angle. So e.g. is it. also possible that all magnet sequences of the rotor and/or the stator exhibit the same pitch angle.

In the case that two magnet sequences on the rotor and/or the stator exhibit different pitch angles, it is also these magnet sequences the associated angle of attack different. Beyond that specified the above solve the problem by an apparatus with a coaxial inner stator, a coaxial rotor arranged to the shaft and a coaxial outside stator arranged to the shaft, arranged to a rotatable stored shaft, whereby the rotor is connected regarding the inner stator at least partial radial other outer arranged and solid with the shaft and the outside stator is at least partial radial other outer arranged regarding the rotor, whereby the inner stator two or more exhibits arranged dipole magnets, which are uniform distributed over the circular cylinder extent and are regarding a shaft axis of the shaft axial against each other so offset on an outer surface of a circular cylinder that itself on the outer surface of the circular cylinder a treppenförmige arrangement that Dipole magnets results in and adjacent dipole magnets regarding the shaft axis axial partly overlap, whereby the rotor two or more exhibits longitudinal series with in each case four or more uniform dipole magnets distributed on the circular cylinder extent on an outer surface of a circular cylinder, whereby the dipole magnets of series are appropriate for against each other alternate so offset in a vertical plane longitudinal to the shaft axis and are the dipole magnets of adjacent rows that they form axial to the shaft axis a zigzag pattern uniform over the circular cylinder extent, and whereby the outside stator two or more exhibits arranged dipole magnets on an outer surface of a circular cylinder, which is uniform on the outer surface distributed.

By the particular arrangement of the dipole magnets of the rotor and the stator and/or. the stators cause formed magnetic fields that the rotor becomes free floating held. The apparatuses according to invention works in such a way as a magnetic bearing. Surprisingly shown has itself that by the particular arrangement of the dipole magnets of the rotor and the stator and/or. the stators with rotation of the rotor a magnetic alternating field generated becomes, a to a large extent lossless rotation of the rotor relative the stator and/or. the stators allowed. This can become for a multiplicity of technical applications utilized, for example for a particularly friction-poor storage itself of a preferably rapid rotary shaft. In the ensuing description mathematical, in particular geometric terms become, e.g. parallel, vertical, plane, cylinder, angle, etc. used, which can be registered in technical designs, but in the practice due to the production-determined tolerances never perfect satisfied to become to be able. For the person skilled in the art it is clearer therefore that this description is to be regarded only as description of ideal. The description includes however tacitly also similar devices with general conventional tolerances also.

The shaft runs in an axis, the so-called. Shaft axis, and is more rotatable around this axis. The shaft preferably is as straight circular cylinders formed, whereby those forms axis of rotation of the circular cylinder the shaft axis.

It is possible that within the first and/or second magnet sequences adjacent dipole magnets exhibit the same polarity. It is also possible that within the first and/or second magnet sequences adjacent dipole magnets exhibit a different polarity.

In a prefered embodiment the polarity of the two is or more dipole magnets within or several magnet sequences a same. Regarding the shaft axis that means that the north poles of all dipole magnets point within or several magnet sequences either to the shaft axis or of it remote are. Meant or several magnet sequences are magnet sequences in or more of the first magnet sequences and/or magnet sequences in or more of the second magnet sequences. It is also possible that the polarity of all dipole magnets of the rotor and/or. the stator same is, is called that the north poles of all dipole magnets of the rotor and/or. the stator either to the shaft axis show or of it remote are. Bottom polarity of a dipole magnet the orientation magnetic Nordund of south pole of the dipole magnet becomes understood.

In another prefered embodiment is the polarity of the two or more Dipole magnets of a magnet sequence alternate. It is possible that within a magnet sequence adjacent dipole magnets exhibit a different polarity. In this case successive dipole magnets of a magnet sequence show for example the sequence… SNSN… (N = north pole; S = south pole). It is also possible that the change of the polarity is irregular, so that itself for example the sequence… NNSNNS… results in.

Preferably the dipole axles of the dipole magnets parallel plane arranged vertical to that to the shaft axis run.

Preferably the distance of adjacent dipole magnets of the two is or more dipole magnets within or several magnet sequences a constant. Meant or several magnet sequences are magnet sequences in or more of the first magnet sequences and/or magnet sequences in or more of the second magnet sequences.

It is possible that the distance of adjacent dipole magnets is within the one or more first magnet sequences of the rotor and/or the stator constant. In this case it is possible that the distance of adjacent dipole magnets of the two differs or more dipole magnets within the one or more first magnet sequences dipole magnets of the two adjacent of the distance or more dipole magnets within the one or more second magnet sequences. It is also possible that the distance of adjacent dipole magnets of the two agrees or more dipole magnets within the one or more first magnet sequences dipole magnets of the two adjacent with the distance or more dipole magnets within the one or more second magnet sequences.

It is also possible that the inclination angle of the dipole axles within the one or more first magnet sequences and/or the one or more is second magnet sequences constant. Preferably these constant inclination angles in a range of 14 degree to 90 degree lies.The pitch angle of a magnet sequence indicates the intersection angle between a tangent, the one curve touched, and a vertical plane longitudinal formed by the two or more dipole magnets within the magnet sequence to the shaft axis. Generally case can change the pitch angle of a magnet sequence in the course of the magnet sequence. In a prefered embodiment the pitch angle of a magnet sequence is constant, comparable with the slope of a thread. In the case of a constant pitch angle the two lie or more dipole magnets of the magnet sequence with a development on a straight one.

It is prefered, if exhibits the one or more first magnet sequences the same pitch angle, first pitch angle mentioned. Further it is prefered, if exhibits the one or more second magnet sequences the same pitch angle, second pitch angle mentioned.

The angle of attack between a first magnet sequence and a second magnet sequence indicates the intersection angle between a first tangent, the one curve touched, and a second tangent, the one curve touched formed formed by the two or more dipole magnets within the first magnet sequence by the two or more dipole magnets within the second magnet sequence for a development of the first and second magnet sequences. Generally case can change the angle of attack in the course of the magnet sequences.

In a prefered embodiment the angle of attack between a first magnet sequence and a second magnet sequence is constant. In this case is the respective pitch angles of the first magnet sequence and the second magnet sequence constant.

In a particularly prefered embodiment a single, constant angle of attack exists for all first and second magnet sequences. In this case the one or more exhibits first magnet sequences the same first pitch angle and the one or more second magnet sequences exhibits the same second pitch angle.

In a prefered embodiment two or more begin first magnet sequences at a first vertical plane arranged to the shaft axis and end at a second vertical plane arranged to the shaft axis. In same wise is it possible that two or more begin second magnet sequences at a first vertical plane arranged to the shaft axis and at a second vertical plane arranged to the shaft axis end. It is possible that all magnet sequences of the rotor and/or the stator at a first front surface of the rotor oriented transverse to the shaft axis and/or. the stator begin and at a second front surface of the rotor oriented transverse to the shaft axis and/or. the stator end. Preferably the one or more is first magnet sequences and/or the one or more second magnet sequences so arranged that groups of two or more magnet sequences are formed. A group of two or more magnet sequences is characterised by the fact that the distance of the magnet sequences is to each other smaller than the distance to magnet sequences, which do not belong to the group.

In a prefered embodiment an air gap between the rotor and the stator exhibits a gap width of 0.1 mm up to 50 mm. Particularly prefered is it, if the gap width exhibits a value from 1 mm to 5 mm.

In a prefered embodiment the rotor and the stator in that point vertical plane one arranged to the shaft axis circular cross section essentially exhibit. With the term “essentially circular” is stated that the cross section due to the production-determined tolerances the geometric perfect circular shape does not come satisfied, it however close.

Preferably the outer surface of the first circular cylinder the outer periphery of the rotor is umbeschrieben and/or the inner periphery of the rotor in-described. First that the outer surface of the first circular cylinder the outer periphery of the rotor it umbeschrieben is refers to the case that the rotor is at least partial radial other inside arranged regarding the stator. The latter that the outer surface of the first circular cylinder the inner periphery of the rotor is in-described, refers to the case that the rotor is at least partial radial other outer arranged regarding the stator.

Preferably the outer surface of the second circular cylinder the outer periphery of the stator is umbeschrieben or the inner periphery of the stator in-described. First that the outer surface of the second circular cylinder the outer periphery of the stator it umbeschrieben is refers to the case that the rotor is at least partial radial other outer arranged regarding the stator. The latter that the outer surface of the second circular cylinder the inner periphery of the stator is in-described, refers to the case that the rotor is at least partial radial other inside arranged regarding the stator. In a prefered embodiment are the dipole magnets of the rotor and/or. the stator so in each case on the outer surface of the first circular cylinder and/or. the second circular cylinder arranged that the outer surface of the first circular cylinder and/or. the second circular cylinder the dipole magnets of the rotor and/or. the stator not in each case touched. With the term “non-cutting touched” is stated that the respective outer surface does not cut the dipole magnets touched, but their volume. It means that the respective outer surface concerns the dipole magnets exclusive, i.e. superficial touched.

It is particularly favourable, if the rotor and/or the stator cover a support body from non magnetic material with recesses to the receptacle of the dipole magnets. The support body serves to hold the dipole magnets at a defined position. The dipole magnets are in recesses of the support body intended in addition fixed.

In a prefered embodiment the stator is formed as inner stator, which is rotor regarding the stator formed as inner stator at least partial radial other outer arranged and solid with the shaft connected, and the apparatus exhibits a coaxial outside stator arranged to the shaft, which is at least partial radial other outer arranged regarding the rotor. In addition the dipole magnets in or more second magnet sequences of the uniform over the scope of the second circular cylinder distributed and regarding the shaft axis axial against each other so offset are with this prefered embodiment that on the outer surface of the second circular cylinder a treppenförmige arrangement of the dipole magnets results and partly overlaps adjacent dipole magnets regarding the shaft axis axial. Besides the rotor k exhibits first magnet sequences with this prefered embodiment, whereby k is a whole number of large or same four, and which is two or more dipole magnets of the k first magnet sequences so formed that her two or more on that Outer surface of the first circular cylinder longitudinal series with in each case k uniform dipole magnet distributed on the scope of the first circular cylinder train. Beyond that the dipole magnets of series lie in a vertical plane longitudinal to the shaft axis with this prefered embodiment, and the dipole magnets of adjacent rows are against each other alternate so offset that they form axial to the shaft axis a zigzag pattern uniform over the circular cylinder extent. In addition the outside stator two or more exhibits arranged dipole magnets with this prefered embodiment, which are uniform distributed on the outer surface on one the outer surface of a third circular cylinder.

In a prefered embodiment the magnets of the inner stator, the rotor and the outside stator at least partly overlap. A partial coverage of two magnets is satisfied if a vertical plane longitudinal to the shaft exists, which runs by each of the two magnets. From a complete coverage of two magnets spoken becomes if for each point one of the two magnets a vertical plane longitudinal to the shaft exists, which runs by each of the two magnets. A partial coverage of three magnets is satisfied if a vertical plane longitudinal to the shaft exists, which runs by each of the three magnets. From a complete coverage of three magnets spoken becomes if for each point of two of the three magnets a vertical plane longitudinal to the shaft exists, which runs by each of the three magnets. It can become an engagement factor defined: with an engagement factor of 0% two/three magnets do not overlap, with an engagement factor of 100% overlap two/three magnets complete.

In a particularly prefered embodiment of the apparatus are the inner stator and the rotor axial arranged fixed to the shaft axis and the magnets of the inner stator and the rotor overlap complete. Beyond that the outside stator is axial arranged movable to the shaft axis, so that that Engagement factor of the magnets of the outside stator and the magnets of the rotor continuous in a range from 0% to 100% changed will can.

The magnets of the inner stator, the rotor and the outside stator define one meant hollow cylinder each with common longitudinal axis (= the shaft axis), are arranged within whose wall the magnets. In case of a partial coverage of the three magnets the three meant hollow cylinders lie on top of each other at least in a portion the longitudinal axis radial. This portion the longitudinal axis forms thereby the longitudinal axis of the meant cylinder cavity, whose longitudinal axis coaxial runs to the shaft. In case of a complete coverage of the magnets of the three devices (= inner stator, rotor and outside stator) two of the three meant hollow cylinders always radial lie over or bottom third of the three meant hollow cylinders.

Preferably the rotor has the form of a drum or a cup, i.e. it points an hollow cylinder with annular cross section and/or. a pipe section up, whose is a face by a coaxial circular disk covered. In the center of the circular disk the rotor exhibits a bore, by whom the shaft axis runs. The circular disk knows an additional ring inertial, which serves for the compound of the rotor with the shaft, e.g. by means of a screw connection, which runs by a radial bore in the ring. The rotor is stationary connected with the shaft, is called the relative position of the rotor regarding the shaft remains with a rotation of the shaft during the intended operation of the apparatus unchanged. Nevertheless the bolt mounting, which connects the rotor with the shaft, can become dissolved, e.g. to the maintenance, purification, exchange of defective parts, etc. The hollow cylinder of the rotor surrounds the outer surface of the cylindrical inner stator bottom formation of an annular air gap between the rotor and the inner stator.

It is also possible that the circular disk, which takes a face off of the rotor hollow cylinder exhibits two or more dipole magnets, which are arranged on a circumference regarding the center of the circular disk. The magnetic dipole axle of the dipole magnets runs parallel to the shaft axis. A bottom magnetic dipole axle, or short: Dipole axle, a dipole magnet becomes a straight one understood, which connects the south pole and the north pole of the dipole magnet. Preferably the dipole magnets are uniform distributed on the circumference.

It is particularly favourable, if the outside stator surrounds hollow-cylindrical or the circle-tubular rotor. It is possible for the example that the outside stator the form of an hollow cylinder and/or. Circular pipe exhibits, whose central axis with the central axis of the rotor coincides. The hollow cylinder of the outside stator surrounds the outer surface of the hollow-cylindrical rotor bottom formation of an annular air gap between the outside stator and the rotor.

With a prefered embodiment the dipole magnets of the outside stator exhibit a rod-shaped geometry and run with their Stabbzw. Longitudinal axis parallel to longitudinal axis of the circular pipe, i.e. parallel to the axis of the shaft (= shaft axis). It is prefered, if the dipole magnets of the outside stator essentially extend over the whole length of the outside stator formed in form of a circular pipe. “Essentially” it can mean that the outside stator at its faces exhibits still another edge or a cover disk, at which the dipole magnets ends. The magnetic dipole axles of the dipole magnets of the outside stator preferably lie in a plane, which runs rectangular to the longitudinal axis of the dipole magnets.

It is also possible that the preferably rod-shaped dipole magnets of the outside stator are arranged in the form of or more rings along the scope of the outside stator. Everyone of the rings formed from the dipole magnets lies in a plane, which runs vertical to the shaft axis. A ring the formed dipole magnets are among themselves by bars from non magnetic material from each other separate. Between the single rings formed from the dipole magnets annular ridges from non magnetic material run along the scope of the outside stator. Preferably the insides of the dipole magnets oriented to the shaft axis lie on an outer surface of a circular hollow cylinder. It is prefered that the dipole magnet rings are uniform over the full height of the outside stator distributed.

In a prefered embodiment of the invention the inner stator and the outside stator are fixed arranged. The inner stator and the outside stator can be assistance of fasteners and/or guide means not-rotatable at a mechanical housing to the receptacle of the apparatus arranged.

In a prefered embodiment the shaft penetrates the inner stator not, but is only with the rotor connected. The rotor becomes held by the magnetic fields of the apparatus in Schwebe. Therefore an additional mechanical storage of the rotor is not necessary by means of a bearing. The shaft becomes formed in this case by a pin, which is distant outward from the circular disk at the face of the rotor arranged at the rotor. In an alternative embodiment of the apparatus extended itself the shaft over the whole length of the apparatus. The shaft runs along the central axis of the inner stator and serves as additional mechanical guide member of the rotor. In this case the inner stator points preferably a bearing, e.g. a rolling bearing, up, is rotatably supported in which the shaft.

It is also possible that the rotor and the outside stator consist in each case of two halves. Preferably these halves are symmetrical in each case formed, concerning a plane of symmetry, which runs vertical to the shaft axis. This plane of symmetry penetrates simultaneous also the inner stator, which is split up in this way into two same prolonged meant halves. In the range that

Plane of symmetry is a fastener arranged, is stationary fixed by means of which the inner stator at the mechanical housing. Preferably this fastener separates the two halves of the rotor and the two halves of the outside stator bottom formation from air gaps. It is also possible that the two halves of the outside stator are more slidable concerning the shaft axis.

In a prefered embodiment the two halves of the outside stator symmetrical are so more slidable to the plane of symmetry that the engagement factor of the magnets of the rotor is more adjustable by the magnets of the outside stator stepless in a range of zero percent to one hundred percent. That e.g. is. realizable by means of a threaded shaft with two threads moving in opposite directions, moving in opposite directions arranged at which the two halves of the outside stator are in the threaded portions. Depending upon a direction of rotation of the threaded shaft the two halves of the outside stator move away one on the other too or from each other.

An angle [alpha] is defined as the angles between the dipole axle of a dipole magnet of the inner stator and a tangent to the scope of the inner stator, whereby the tangent runs by a point on the scope, in which the dipole axle the scope penetrates. An angle ss is defined as the angles between the dipole axle of a dipole magnet of the rotor and a tangent to the scope of the rotor, whereby the tangent runs by a point on the scope, in which the dipole axle the scope penetrates. An angle Y is defined as the angles between the dipole axle of a dipole magnet of the outside stator and a tangent to the scope of the outside stator, whereby the tangent runs by a point on the scope, in which the dipole axle the scope penetrates. In a prefered embodiment of the invention the angles [alpha] are appropriate, ss and for y in a range of values of 14 [deg.] < [alpha], ss, y <= 90 [deg.]. It is possible that the dipole axle of a dipole magnet in a plane vertical runs to the shaft axis, which an angle [alpha], ss, Y of 90 [deg.] corresponds.

In the case that mentioned tangent runs to the scope of the inner stator parallel to the tangent to the scope of the outer surface of the second circular cylinder, the angle [alpha] corresponds to the inclination angle. In the case that mentioned tangent runs to the scope of the rotor parallel to the tangent to the scope of the outer surface of the first circular cylinder, the angle corresponds ss to the inclination angle.

It is particularly favourable, if the dipole magnets of the inner stator and/or the outside stator in a cutting plane vertical exhibit a rectangular or a trapezoidal cross section to the shaft axis. Further it is particularly favourable, if the dipole magnets of the rotor in a cutting plane vertical exhibit a point-symmetrical, preferably a circular, to the magnetic dipole axle of the dipole magnets cross section. In addition, there is other one, non-point-symmetrical cross sections possible, e.g. trapezoidal, triangular, or irregular formed cross sections.

In an other prefered embodiment the dipole magnets of the inner stator and/or the outside stator parallel exhibit the largest expansion to the shaft axis. It means that the dipole magnets of the inner stator and/or the outside stator a geometry exhibit rod-shaped. The expansion parallel to the dipole axle is small parallel as the expansion to the shaft axis. It is possible that all dipole magnets of the inner stator a same outer shape, i.e. the same geometry, exhibit. It is also possible that all dipole magnets of the outside stator a same outer shape, i.e. the same geometry, exhibit. It is also possible that all dipole magnets of the rotor a same outer shape, i.e. the same geometry, exhibit. With outer shape and/or. Geometry are only the outer dimensions meant; the magnetic orientation, i.e. the layer of the magnetic north pole and the magnetic south pole, is independent of it and can individual from magnet to magnet vary.

In a prefered magnet assembly of the apparatus the magnets of the inner stator, the rotor and the outside stator are same in each case oriented, so that they repel themselves in each Winkellage of the rotor. For the example that points north pole outward, with all dipole magnets on the rotor that north pole inward and that south pole outward, and with all dipole magnets on the outside stator that south pole inward with all dipole magnets on the inner stator.

Other features, details and advantages of the invention result from the ensuing description of several embodiments of apparatuses according to invention on the basis the designs.

Fig. 1a, 1 b are cross sections of a stator with a magnet sequence;

 


Fig. 2a, 2b are cross sections of stators with multiple magnet sequences;

 


Fig. 3a, 3b developments of outer surfaces of stators;

 


Fig. 4 developments of outer surfaces of a stator and a rotor;

 


Fig. 5a – 5c a side view and cross sections of a stator;

 



Fig. 6a – 6f
shows, a longitudinal section and cross sections of a rotor; Fig. 7a – 7d views and a cross section of a stator;

 

 

 


Fig. 8a – 8d shows and a cross section of a stator;

 


Fig. 9a – 9h illustrate the pitch angle;

 


Fig. 10 illustrates of the relationship between Magnet sequences and magnet rows of the rotor;

 



Fig. 11
is a representation of an apparatus according to invention with one rotor and two stators;

 


Fig. 12a an oblique view of the inner stator of the apparatus after Fig. 11 without magnets (= stator core);

 


Fig. 12b a schematic representation of the inner stator of the apparatus after Fig. 11, vertical to the shaft axis;

Fig. 13 a development of the magnet assembly on the inner stator of the apparatus after Fig. 11 ;

 


Fig. 14 a section by the inner stator of the apparatus after Fig. 11, along in Fig. 12b indicated line A-A;

 


Fig. 15a a view of the fastener of the apparatus after Fig. 11, vertical to the shaft axis;

 


Fig. 15b a view of the fastener of the apparatus after Fig. 11, toward the shaft axis;

Fig. 16 an oblique view of the rotor of the apparatus after Fig. 11;

 


Fig. 17a a schematic view of the inner stator and the rotor of the apparatus after Fig. 11; Fig. 17b a scheme of possible inclination angles of the dipole magnets of the rotor of the apparatus after Fig. 11 ;

 

 

Fig. 18a a development of the magnet assembly of the rotor of the apparatus after Fig. 11, along in Fig. 16 direction indicated XY;

 


Fig. 18b a detail view of the development in accordance with Fig. 18a;

 


Fig. 19a a longitudinal section by a mechanical housing to the receptacle of the apparatus after Fig. 11 ;

Fig. 19b a section by the outside stator of the apparatus after Fig. 11, vertical to the shaft axis;

 


Fig. 20 is an oblique view of the outside stator and the mechanical housing to the receptacle of the apparatus after Fig. 11;

 


Fig. 21 a scheme of the magnet assembly on the stators and the rotor of the apparatus after Fig. 11, shown as section along that Shaft axis;

 


Fig. 22 a scheme of the magnet assembly on the stators and the rotor that Apparatus after Fig. 11, shown as section along in Fig. 11 indicated line B-B;

 


Fig. 23a is a schematic representation of a dipole magnet of the outside stator of the apparatus after Fig. 11 ;

 


Fig. 23b is a schematic representation of a dipole magnet of the inner stator of the apparatus after Fig. 11 ; and

Fig. 23c is a schematic representation of a dipole magnet of the rotor of the apparatus after Fig. 11. Fig. 1a shows a cross section of a stator 2, whereby the cutting plane orthogonal to the shaft axis 50 runs. The stator 2 exhibits a circular cross section. The stator 2 covers a magnet sequence of dipole magnet 8. The magnetic dipole axle 80 one of these dipole magnets 8 lies in the cutting plane. The dipole magnet 8 is on an outer surface M2 of a coaxial first circular cylinder arranged oriented to the shaft axis 50. To the outer surface M2 a tangent longitudinal in the cutting plane is 81 placed, those the outer surface M2 at the point touched, at which the dipole axle 80 breaks through the outer surface. The angle between the dipole axle 80 and the tangent 81 is the inclination angle A, which amounts to in the present example 90 degree.

Fig.1 b shows a detail of Fig. 1a. The dipole magnet 8 touched those dashed drawn outer surface M2 in the contact points P1, P2. The scope U of the stator 2 drawn with a continuous line follows the planar Front surface of the dipole magnet 8 and deviates therefore in the range of the dipole magnet 8 from the cylindrical outer surface M2.

Fig. 2a shows a cross section of a stator 2 with first and a second magnet sequence. The stator 2 covers two dipole magnets 8, which are next to each other arranged. The magnetic dipole axles 80 of the two dipole magnets 8 are appropriate for parallel in the cutting plane and run. The left dipole magnet 8 is component of the first magnet sequence of the stator 2, the right dipole magnet 8 is component of the second magnet sequence of the stator 2.

Fig. 2b shows a cross section of a stator 2 with first and a second magnet sequence. The stator 2 covers two dipole magnets 8, which are next to each other arranged. The magnetic dipole axles 80 of the two dipole magnets 8 lie in the cutting plane, cut the shaft axis 50 and include an angle [lambda]. The left dipole magnet 8 is component of the first magnet sequence of the stator 2, the right dipole magnet 8 is component of the second magnet sequence of the stator 2.

Fig. 3a shows a development of an outer surface M2 of a cylindrical stator with a magnet sequence F2. The orientation of the outer surface M2 is 50 defined by the indication of the shaft 5 and the shaft axis. The magnet sequence F2 begins at the left side of the outer surface M2 and ends at the right side of the outer surface M2. The dipole magnets 8 of the magnet sequence F2 lie on a straight one. The arrangement of the magnet sequence F2 on the outer surface M2 is the straight one defined by a pitch angle b. The pitch angle b corresponds to the intersection angle between the straight one of the magnet sequence F2 and a vertical plane longitudinal to the shaft axis 50. The magnet sequence F2 describes a whole turn (= 360 degree) in its course along the shaft axis 50 around the shaft axis 50.

Fig. 3b shows – corresponding Fig. 3a – a development of an outer surface M2 of a cylindrical stator with a magnet sequence F2. Compared with in Fig. 3a magnet sequence shown is the pitch angle b in Fig. 3b magnet sequence shown F2 larger. Therefore the magnet sequence F2 in their course describes an half turn (= 180 degree) along the shaft axis 50 only around the shaft axis 50.

Fig. a development of an outer surface M2 of a stator with magnet sequences F2 and a development of an outer surface M1 the stator of an associated rotor with magnet sequences F1 shows 4. The dipole magnets of the magnet sequences F1, F2 lie in each case on straight ones. Those the stator associated straight one and those the rotor associated straight one separate a bottom angle of attack C.

Fig. a plan view of a stator 2 shows ä. The stator 2 has the form of a cylinder, whose axis of rotation lies in the image plane and coincides with the shaft axis 50. The stator exhibits eight magnet sequences F2. A support body of the stator 2 surrounds the pole faces by cylindrical dipole magnet 7 of the magnet sequences F2, which are in recesses of the support body.

Fig. 5b shows a cross section in Fig. ä represented stator 2 along a cutting plane A-A, like in Fig. ä shown. In the section uniform are to be recognized over the scope of the stator 2 distributed recesses 22 for the dipole magnets. Everyone of the recesses 22 visible in the section is a separate magnet sequence F2 associated. Related to the shaft axis of the stator 2 is the recess 22 of a magnet sequence F2 around the angle [delta] opposite the recess 22 of an adjacent magnet sequence F2 rotated. In the present embodiment the angle [delta] amounts to = 45 degree. The radius R2 of the cylindrical stator 2 amounts to in the present embodiment 45 mm. The depth T22 of the cylindrical recesses 22 amounts to in the present embodiment 22.22 mm, its diameter D22 has e.g. a value of 10 mm.

Fig. 5c shows a cross section in Fig. ä represented stator 2 along a cutting plane B-B, like in Fig. ä shown. Opposite in Fig. 5b represented section are the recesses around an angle [delta] around the shaft axis 50 twisted. Within a magnet sequence F2 adjacent dipole magnets are 8 thus against each other twisted regarding the shaft axis 50 around an angle [delta]. In the present embodiment the angle [delta] amounts to = 12 degree.

Fig. 6a shows a plan view of a rotor 1. The rotor 1 has the form of an hollow cylinder with an height of H. The height of H e.g. amounts to. 235 mm. The wall of the rotor 1 exhibits the wall penetrating holes, which serve 15 as recesses for the receptacle of the dipole magnets. The magnet sequences of the rotor 1 begin in a distance E of the face of the rotor 1 and end in the distance E of the opposite face of the rotor 1. In the present embodiment the distance E amounts to 35 mm. The diameter D15 of the cylindrical recesses 15 e.g. amounts to. 10 mm. Each recess 15 is a retaining mechanism to the fixation of the dipole magnets 7 associated used into the recesses 15. The retaining mechanism consists of a threaded hole 150 and a threaded pin, which are pivoted into the threaded hole and for the fixation of the dipole magnet 7 serve.

Fig. 6b shows a view of on the left of in Fig. 6a of represented rotor 1. The outer diameter D1A of the rotor 1 e.g. amounts to. 143 mm, its inner diameter D1 I e.g. 93 mm. The rotor 1 exhibits uniform threaded holes M6 distributed over the scope, which are in a distance DM6 of the outer periphery mounted at its face. The threaded holes M6 can exhibit for example a metrical ISO thread with a nominal diameter M6 (ISO = international organization for standardization). The distance DM6 e.g. amounts to. 10 mm. These threaded holes M6 serve to fasten a lid on the face of the rotor 1 is 5 connected over which the rotor 1 with the shaft. At each face the rotor 1 e.g. exhibits a circumferential groove 16, their outer diameter D16. 97 mm amounts to. This groove 16 takes up a corresponding circular projection of the lid.

Fig. 6c shows a three-dimensional view in Fig. 6a of represented rotor 1.

Fig. 6d shows a longitudinal section in Fig. 6a of represented rotor 1 along in Fig. 6a indicated cutting plane A-A. The depth TM6 of the Boreholes M6 mounted in the faces points a value from e.g. 20 mm up. The depth T16, of the circumferential grooves 16 arranged at the faces e.g. amounts to. 2 mm, its width B16 has a value of e.g. 2 mm. In Fig. 6d are to be recognized in various recesses of 15 threaded holes 150, which flow into the recesses 15. Adjacent recesses 15 of a magnet sequence e.g. exhibit 50 toward the shaft axis a distance DF1. 11 mm amounts to.

Fig. 6e shows a cross section in Fig. 6a of represented rotor 1 along in Fig. 6d indicated cutting plane B-B. In the section uniform recesses 15 for the dipole magnets, distributed over the scope of the rotor 1, are to be recognized. Everyone of the recesses 15 visible in the section is a separate magnet sequence F1 associated. Related to the shaft axis 50 of the rotor 1 the recess 15 of a magnet sequence F1 is around the angle [delta] 1 opposite the recess 15 of an adjacent magnet sequence F1 rotated. In the present embodiment the angle [delta] amounts to = 20 degree. A dipole axle of a first recess 15 and a central longitudinal axis of a threaded hole 150, which flows to the first recess 15 adjacent recess 15 into one, include an angle [delta] 2, which amounts to in the present embodiment 25 degree.

Fig. 6f shows a cross section in Fig. 6a of represented rotor 1 along in Fig. 6d indicated cutting plane CC. Opposite in Fig. 6e represented section are the recesses 15 around an angle [delta] 1 around the shaft axis 50 twisted. Within a magnet sequence F1 adjacent dipole magnets are 8 thus regarding the shaft axis 50 around an angle [delta] 1 against each other twisted. In the present embodiment the angle [delta] amounts to 1 = 12 degree. Fig. 7a shows a plan view of a stator 2 with group-like arranged magnet sequences F2. Three magnet sequences F2 form in each case a group G.

Fig. 7b shows a view of on the left of in Fig. 7a of stator shown 2.

Fig. 7c shows a cross section in Fig. 7a of stator shown 2 along in Fig. 7a indicated cutting plane A-A. The recesses 22 to the receptacle of the cylindrical dipole magnets 8 are so formed that longitudinal central axis of the recesses 22, which are a group G the formed magnet sequences F2 associated and are in a vertical cutting plane arranged longitudinal to the shaft axis 50, are parallel to the cutting plane run and to each other parallel. The straight ones, which the shaft axis 50 cut and by the points run, in which, longitudinal in the cutting plane, longitudinal central axis of the recesses 22 break through the scope of the stator 2 a circumscribed cylinder, include with adjacent recesses of a group from magnet sequences an angle [xi]. In the present embodiment the angle [xi] has a value of 14.24 degree. The outer edges immediate adjacent recesses 22 e.g. exhibit a minimum distance 23. 1 mm amounted to can.

Fig. 7d shows a three-dimensional view in Fig. 7a of represented stator 2.

Fig. 8a shows a plan view of a stator 2 with group-like arranged magnet sequences F2. Three magnet sequences F2 form in each case a group G. Compared with in Fig. 7a shown stator 2 point with in Fig. 8a stator shown 2 a group G the formed magnet sequences F2 a larger distance from each other up.

Fig. 8b shows a view of on the left of in Fig. 8a of stator shown 2.

Fig. 8c shows a cross section in Fig. 8a of stator shown 2 along in Fig. 8a indicated cutting plane A-A. The recesses 22 to the receptacle of the cylindrical dipole magnets 8 are so formed that longitudinal central axis of the recesses 22, which are a group G the formed magnet sequences F2 associated and are in a vertical cutting plane arranged longitudinal to the shaft axis 50, include parallel to the cutting plane run and with one another an angle [phi] 1. In the present embodiment the angle [phi] has 1 a value of 28 degree. Immediate neighbors within the recesses 22, which are the same group G associated, are 22 from each other separate by a bar of the support body of the stator. The bar exhibits a width J on the scope of the stator 2, as in Fig. 8c outlines. In the present embodiment the width J has a value of 11, 94 mm.

Longitudinal central axis of the recesses 22, which are various groups G associated, 2 includes an angle [phi] at least with one another. In the present embodiment the angle [phi] has 2 a value of 64 degree.

Fig. 8d shows a three-dimensional view in Fig. 8a of represented stator 2.

Fig. 9a to 9h show in each case a development of the outer surface M1, M2 of a rotor 1 and/or. Stator 2. A magnet sequence is symbolized by an arrow. By the arrow direction a direction of a magnet sequence becomes defined. A direction of a magnet sequence is of importance, if the dipole magnets of the magnet sequence exhibit a characteristic polarity succession, which is direction-controlled. For the example it can be for the present invention of importance whether a magnet sequence with three dipole magnets exhibits the polarity SNN or the polarity NNS. The orientation of the outer surface M1, M2 is 50 defined by the indication of the shaft axis.

Fig. 9a shows a pitch angle of b = 10 degree of a magnet sequence, which begins at the left side of the outer surface. Fig. 9b shows a pitch angle of b = 80 degree of a magnet sequence, which begins at the left side of the outer surface. Fig. 9c shows a pitch angle of b = 280 degree of a magnet sequence, which begins at the right side of the outer surface. Fig. 9d shows a pitch angle of b = 350 degree of a magnet sequence, which begins at the right side of the outer surface. Fig. 9e shows a pitch angle of b = 10 degree of a magnet sequence, which begins at the left side of the outer surface. Fig. 9f shows a pitch angle of b = 80 degree of a magnet sequence, which begins at the left side of the outer surface. Fig. 9g shows a pitch angle of b = 280 degree of a magnet sequence, which begins at the right side of the outer surface. Fig. 9h shows a pitch angle of b = 350 degree of a magnet sequence, which begins at the right side of the outer surface.

Fig. 10 serves the illustration of the relationship between magnet sequences F1 and magnet rows 701 to 707 of a rotor 1. Fig. an outer surface M1 of a coaxial first circular cylinder Z1 oriented to the shaft 5 shows 10. The rotor 1 is coaxial 5 arranged to the shaft. The rotor 1 covers twenty-eight dipole magnets 7, which are on the outer surface M1 arranged.

The dipole magnets 7 of the rotor 1 are in four magnet sequences F1 with in each case seven dipole magnets 7 arranged. To the better discrimination the four magnet sequences F1 with the numbers in deep position of 1 to 4 than F1i to FI4 are durchnummeriert. The dipole magnets 7 of the magnet sequences F1 i to FI4 are so arranged and/or. formed that they sieve longitudinal series 701 to 707 with in each case four uniform dipole magnets 7 distributed on the scope of the first circular cylinder Z1 on the outer surface M1 train. The dipole magnets 7 of series 701 to 707 lie in a vertical plane longitudinal to the wave axle 50 of the shaft 5. The dipole magnets of 7 adjacent rows are against each other alternate so offset that they form axial to the shaft axis 50 a zigzag pattern uniform over the scope of the circular cylinder Z1. As example is the uniform zigzag pattern, which the dipole magnets 7 of the adjacent rows 703 and 704 train, in Fig. 10 with a fat line indicated.

Fig. a schematic representation of an apparatus according to invention, which exhibits an inner stator 2, a rotor 1 and an outside stator 3, points 11 the coaxial to a shaft axis 50 of a rotatable, rod-shaped shaft 5 arranged is. The cylindrical inner stator 2 exhibits in each case a circle-disc shaped end cap 13 with in each case a ball bearing 11 at its two ends. By means of these ball bearings 11 the inner stator is 2 coaxial 5 stored on the shaft. The shaft is in a typical embodiment from non magnetic material, e.g. Plastic, made and exhibits a diameter of 10 to 40 mm and a length from 100 to 400 mm. The inner stator 2 exhibits an inner stator core 12 and whereupon along the outer surface of the inner stator of 2 arranged magnets 8. The inner stator 2 is connected solid with a fastener 4, which in a mechanical housing to the receptacle of the apparatus (not shown) is arranged, by means of screw connections 10 and becomes in this way fixed held.

The rotor 1, existing from two mirror-image constructed rotor drums with in each case a pipe section and a circular disk, is 5 connected by means of screw connections 10 stationary with the shaft. Each of the rotor drums exhibits magnets 7. It concerns dipole magnets 7, whose magnetic dipole axles in to the shaft 5 vertical arranged planes run. Each of the rotor drums is by a hollow-cylindrical air gap of that radial inner stator 2 and by an annular air gap of the attachment disk, arranged within the rotor drums, 4 separate, which represents a plane of symmetry regarding the two rotor drums of the rotor 1. In a typical embodiment the annular air gap and the hollow-cylindrical air gap exhibit in each case a width from 3 to 50 mm. In the circular disks at the faces of the rotor drums likewise dipole magnets are 700 arranged.

The mass of the rotor 1 and the shaft 5 connected thereby is rotationally symmetrically distributed, so that with a rotation around the shaft axis 50 no imbalance arises.

The outside stator 3 consists of two separate annular halves (= stator rings), in each case with frame 9, magnets 6 and mounting elements to the attachment of the magnets 6. Everyone the frame consists of an hollow cylinder, at whose both faces in each case an annular disc arranged is. In this way each of the stator rings at its outside outer surface and at its two faces of one the frame 9 covered and to the shaft axis is 50 without frames, i.e. open. Within the frames 9 the magnets 6 are between the mounting elements. Each of the two stator rings in each case one of the two rotor drums of the rotor is 1 associated. Each of the stator rings is 1 separate by an annular air gap with a width from 3 to 50 mm of the radial rotor drums of the rotor arranged within the stator rings. The magnets arranged at the inside of the stator rings and the magnets 8 arranged at the outside of the rotor 1 thus direct face each other 6, only by the annular air gap from each other separate. Each of the stator rings can become parallel the shaft axis 50 shifted. It means that the relative position of the outside stator 3 and thus the coverage of the rotor can become 1 by the outside stator during the operation of the apparatus changed and adapted.

With the magnets it concerns 6, 7, 8 dipole magnets. In a prefered embodiment the dipole magnets are 6, 7, 8 as permanent magnets, e.g. existing from the Materialen SmCo and/or NdFeB, formed. It is however also possible that or the several dipole magnets are 6, 7, 8 formed as electromagnets. The magnetic flux density of the magnets 6, 7, 8 preferably lies in a range from 0,4 to 1, 4 tesla.

The frame is preferably from non magnetic material, e.g. Aluminium, made and exhibits a wall thickness from 2 to 10 mm.

Fig 12a shows out non magnetic material (e.g. Aluminium, copper) existing inner stator core 12 of the inner stator 2. The core 12 exhibits a circular cylinder 120, on its outer surface of bars and/or. Ribs 121 in form of a Strahlenkranzes arranged are. Everyone of the ribs 121 extended itself along the central axis of the circular cylinder 120 of the base of the cylinder 120 up to its top surface. The ribs 121 run regarding the central axis of the circular cylinder 120 radial and are uniform distributed over the cylinder extent. In this way 121 grooves develop and/or between the single ribs. Grooves 122. The circular cylinder 120 exhibits a circular bore along its central axis to the receptacle of the shaft 5. Both in the base and in the top surface of the cylinder 120 is in each case a disc shaped recess, is 11 partial arranged in which one of the ball bearings in each case.

The diameter of the stator core 12 amounts to 50 to 500 mm, its height of 100 to 300 mm. The width of the ribs 121 amounts to <= 100 mm and approx. 20 percent of the width of the grooves 122. Fig 12b shows a schematic representation of the inner stator 2. The inner stator 2 covers the inner stator core 12, the magnets 8 and the end caps 13. The same prolonged magnets 8, whose length dimension is smaller than those of the stator core a 12 selected, are in at the outer surface of the circular cylinder 120 along longitudinal grooves 122 inserted. Over the cylinder scope of the inner stator 2 considered is the arrangement of the magnets 8 like that that a first magnet is 8-1 flush with the base of the cylinder 120 final inserted, and which is residual magnets 8 with axial displacement V regarding the shaft axis 50 so arranged that on the outer surface of the inner stator 2 an uniform stair sample results. The axial displacement V is uniform like that over the length of the inner stator 2 divided that a last magnet 8-10 at its face with the top surface of the cylinder 120 locks. During the transition of the last magnet a large step W, whose length (never, exists to 8-10 to the first magnet 8-1) – the fachen displacement corresponds to V, if n indicates the number of the magnets 8. Both on the top surface and on the base of the cylinder 120 the inner stator 2 exhibits a disc shaped end cap 13, into their central axis one of the ball bearings 11 is in each case in each case.

The end caps 13 exhibit a diameter of 50 to 500 mm and an height from 5 to 20 mm. A typical length of the magnets 8, measured toward the shaft axis 50, amounts to 100 mm. The axial displacement V is variable, depending upon the number of the magnets. In a typical arrangement V amounts to approx. 5 percent of the length of the magnets 8.

Between the magnets 8 the outsides of the ribs 121 of the inner stator core 12 run. The dimensions of the magnets 8 and the inner stator core 12 are so one on the other tuned that the inner stator 2 exhibits an essentially uniform outer surface.

Fig 13 shows a development of the outer surface of the inner stator 2. On the outer surface ten magnets are 8 arranged, which exhibit the same geometry in each case. The magnets are more short toward the shaft axis 50 measured as the outer surface. A first magnet 8-1 is arranged with one of its front surfaces flush with the base 125 of the inner stator core 12 final on the outer surface. The residual nine magnets 8 are now toward the shaft axis 50 in uniform displacement V so arranged that the last magnet locks 8-10 with its right face flush with the top surface 126 of the inner stator core 12. In this way the treppenförmige arrangement of the magnets 8 represented in fig 13 results.

Fig 14 shows a section by the inner stator 2, along the cutting plane A-A indicated in the fig 12b. The inner stator core 12 exhibits an hollow cylinder 120, along its central axis the shaft 5 runs and at its outer surface along the ribs 121 run. The hollow cylinder 120 exhibits a diameter of 100 mm and a length of 170 mm. In the grooves formed between the ribs 121 magnets are 8 used, which exhibit a trapezoidal cross section in the cutting plane A-A. The dipole magnets 8 are so arranged that their magnetic dipole axle 80 within the represented cutting plane A-A runs. An angle [alpha], formed at the intersection of the magnetic dipole axle 80 magnets 8 and a tangent 81 to the inner stator 2 in the range magnets 8, knows values of 14 [deg.] to 90 [deg.] exhibit. In fig 14 illustrated case the angle [alpha] amounts to = 90 [deg.].

Fig 15a points the fastener 4 in a view vertical to Shaft axis 50. The fastener 4 exhibits an inner hollow cylinder 40 with smaller radius and an outside attachment annular disc 41 with larger radius. The inner hollow cylinders 40 and the outside attachment annular disc 41 are solid connected with one another. The hollow cylinder 40 serves the receptacle and attachment of the inner stator 2 by screw connections 10. The attachment annular disc 41 is solid connected with a mechanical housing (not shown) to the receptacle of the apparatus. The attachment annular disc 41 exhibits screw connections 10 on its outer periphery.

Fig 15b shows the fastener 4 in a view toward the shaft axis 50. The attachment annular disc 41 exhibits four screw connections 10 on its scope to the attachment at the mechanical housing, the hollow cylinder 40 exhibits over its scope a multiplicity of screw connections 10 to the attachment of the inner stator 2. Fig 16 shows a view of the rotor 1, which is 10 arranged stationary by means of screw connections on the shaft 5. The rotor 1 consists of two from each other separate arranged rotor drums, in whose outer surface circular bores are mounted, who serve 7 for the receptacle of the magnets. The rotor 1 does not consist of magnetic material (e.g. AI, cu). The distance of the rotor drums amounts to 15 mm to each other. The rotor drums exhibit an outside diameter of 165 mm, an height of 70 mm and a wall thickness of 26 mm. Each of the rotor drums exhibits a ringscheibenförmige top surface 102, in which two or more uniform on a circumference are regarding the center of the top surface 102 distributed dipole magnets 700 arranged. The magnetic dipole axle of these dipole magnets 700 runs parallel to the shaft axis 50.

Fig 17a shows a schematic view of one of the rotor drums of the rotor 1 and the inner stator 2, whereby the view is vertical to the shaft axis 50. The rotor 1 is 10 connected stationary by means of screw connections with the shaft 5. The shaft 5 is by means of a ball bearing of rotatable in the inner stator 2 stored. The rotor 1 surrounds the inner stator 2 trommelbzw. bell-shaped. The rotor 1 exhibits an hollow cylinder 101, which becomes 102 completed on of the inner stator 2 an opposite side by the top surface. There the inner stator 2 by the fastener 4 solid (= not rotatable) held becomes, the rotated rotor 1 with its hollow cylinder 101 around the inner stator 2. The hollow cylinder 101 of the rotor 1 is of the inner stator 2 by an annular air gap G1 separate. The hollow cylinder 101 of the rotor 1 exhibits bores, are 7 used into whom magnets. The top surface 102 of the rotor 1 exhibits likewise bores, are 700 used into whom magnets.

Fig. 17b points a schematic representation of the possible orientations of the dipole magnets 7 of the rotor 1 in a viewing direction parallel to the shaft axis 50. The magnetic dipole axle 70 of the rotor magnets 7 runs in a plane, which is vertical 50 arranged to the shaft axis, i.e. within the imaging plane. The angle ss between the magnetic dipole axle 70 and a tangent 71 to the outer periphery of the hollow cylinder 101 of the rotor 1 by the point, at which the dipole axle 70 breaks through the outer periphery of the hollow cylinder 101, knows values of 14 [deg.] to 90 [deg.] exhibit.

Fig 18a shows a development of the outer surfaces of the two drum halves of the rotor 1 along in Fig. 16 direction indicated XY. Fig 18a shows on the left of the left drum half and on the right of the right drum half, which is symmetrical formed to each other. The development extended itself along the direction x Y, like in fig 16 indicated. In vertical 50 planes arranged to the shaft axis run series 701 to 708 from magnets 7. Everyone of the series 701 to 708 is somewhat offset to an adjacent row, so that toward the shaft axis 50 a zigzag arrangement of the magnets 7 arises.

Fig 18b shows an enlarged cutout of the development of the magnets 7 represented in fig 18a. The centers of the magnets 7 within the series 705, 706 are in a constant distance f from each other. The distance between two adjacent rows 705, 706 is a so large selected that in fig the 18b illustrated arrangement with constant magnet distance D results. Two magnets 7051, 7052 in the series 705 are 706 so arranged that the centers of the three magnets 7051, regarding them an associated magnet 7061 in the adjacent row, 7052, 7061 stretch a gleichschenkeliges triangle with legs of the length D and a third side (base) of the length f. This relationship applies to all magnets 7 in all series 701 to 708. The magnets 7 cannot only, as shown, a circular cross section to exhibit, but also other forms, for example square or hexagonal.

The distance D lies in a range of approx. 3 mm up to 50 mm. Particularly prefered is a distance of 5 mm. The distance f lies in a range of approx. 10 mm up to 70 mm.

Fig 19a points a longitudinal section by the mechanical housing to the receptacle of the apparatus, i.e. a section parallel to the shaft axis 50. The mechanical housing covers the fastener 4 to the receptacle of the inner stator 2, guide means 19 to the guide of the slidable halves of the outside stator 3, as well as a transmission shaft 14 rotatable by means of a crank to the displacement of the halves of the outside stator 3 regarding the rotor and/or. inner stator. The transmission shaft 14 exhibits two threaded rods, which exhibit threads moving in opposite directions (Rechtsund left-hand thread) to each other. Thus the two halves of the outside stator 3 can become in symmetrical manner moving in opposite directions uniform moved to each other or apart. Those Guide means 19 sit on the transmission shaft 14 and regarding the fastener 4 outward or inward will in this way proceed. The frames 9 of the outside stator 3 are 19 solid connected with the guide means.

The mechanical housing exhibits an height from 400 to 600 mm, a width of 400 mm, and a depth of 530 mm.

Fig 19b shows a section by the outside stator 3, whereby the cutting plane vertical to the shaft axis 50 runs. The outside stator 3 exhibits annular arranged non magnetic mounting elements 18, between those magnets 6 arranged is. From reasons of clarity some the magnets 6 shown are only exemplary. The person skilled in the art it is clearer that the magnets are 6 over the whole circumference of the outside stator 3 arranged. The magnets 6 and the not magnetic mounting elements 18 are so dimensioned the fact that they result in an hollow cylinder, whose central axis toward the shaft axis 50 runs in the assembled state. The magnetic dipole axles 60 of the magnets 6 lie in planes, which run vertical to the shaft axis 50. An angle y between the magnetic dipole axle 60 and a tangent 61 to the outer periphery of the hollow-cylindrical outside stator 3 by the point, at which the magnetic dipole axle 60 breaks through the outer periphery, lies in a range of values of 14 [deg.] to 90 [deg.]. The outside stator 3 is 19 connected with the guide means, which are for their part 20 slidable stored on attachment columns.

Fig 20 points an oblique view of the mechanical housing to the receptacle of the apparatus. The mechanical housing exhibits a housing plate 21a, 21b, which is 20 connected by four attachment columns with one another at both faces ever. In the central plane between the two housing plates 21a, 21 b the attachment disk 4 is to the receptacle of the inner stator 2. In the centers of the housing plates 21a, 21b one bore each is for the execution of the shaft 5. On the four attachment columns 20 the guide means are 19, at which the halves of the outside stator are 3 fixed, slidable arranged. Likewise between the two housing plates 21a and 21 b the threaded shaft 14 (not shown) runs to the symmetrica Displacement of the guide means 19, and thus the halves of the outside stator 3 mounted on it.

Fig 21 shows a scheme, which the relative disposition of the magnets 6 of the outside stator 3, which shows magnets 7 of the rotor 1 and the magnets 8 of the inner stator 2 in a prefered embodiment. The arrangement refers to a constellation, with which the two halves of the outside stator to each other are as far 3 as possible shifted. In the case of this constellation a complete coverage of the three described magnet-planar results. That north pole of the dipole magnets 6, 7, 8 is with the letter N, that south pole with the letter S indicated.

The air gap G1 between the outer periphery of the inner stator 2 and the inner periphery of the rotor 1, as well as the air gap G2 between the outer periphery of the rotor 1 and the inner periphery of the outside stator 3 can become in any range with a width from 3 to 50 mm selected.

Fig 22 points a schematic arrangement of the three magnet-planar 6, 7, 8 to the shaft axis 50 vertical in a cutting plane B-B, as in Fig. 11 indicated. In a prefered embodiment 2 uniform are over the outer periphery of the inner stator of 2 distributed ten magnets 8 on the inner stator. The magnets 6 point in the cutting plane B-B, i.e. vertical to the shaft axis 50, a trapezoidal cross section up. Each of the two rotor halves exhibits ever four series to sixteen magnets each 7, which exhibit a circular cross section in a cutting plane vertical to the their magnetic dipole axle. The outside stator 3 exhibits ever eighteen magnets 6 on each of its two halves, which are uniform over the scope each of the two stator halves of distributed. The magnets 6 exhibit a trapezoidal cross section in the cutting plane B-B. In Fig. 22 is a prefered orientation of the dipole magnets 6, 7, 8 shown. That north pole of the dipole magnets 6, 7, 8 is with the letter N, that south pole with the letter S indicated.

The ratio of the number of the magnets 8 of the inner stator 2, the number of the magnet rows on the two rotor drums of the rotor 1 and the number of the magnets 6 on the two stator halves of the outside stator 3 becomes a prefered selected indicated in table I as.

Table I


Fig 23 shows particularly favourable dimensions of the used magnets.

Fig 23a shows a prefered dimension magnets 6 of the outside stator 3. The magnet 6 exhibits a length of 75 mm toward the shaft axis 50, the height of the trapezoidal cross section amounts to 50 mm. The baseline of the trapezoid exhibits a length of 25 mm and those the baseline opposite side a length of 20 mm.

Fig 23b shows a prefered dimension magnets 8 of the inner stator 2. The magnet 8 exhibits a length of 100 mm toward the shaft axis 50, the height of the trapezoidal cross section amounts to 25 mm. The baseline of the trapezoid exhibits a length of 25 mm and those the baseline opposite side a length of 10 mm.

Fig 23c shows a prefered embodiment magnets 7 of the rotor 1. The magnet 7 exhibits a circle-cylindrical geometry, whereby the magnetic dipole axis 70 with Mittelbzw. Longitudinal axis of the circular cylinder collapses. The cylinder exhibits an height of 20 mm and a diameter of 20 mm.

Concerning the dimensions of the magnets it is to be noted that with other favourable embodiments the indicated length specifications in a range of plus/minus 50 percent can vary. There is however also embodiments more conceivable, with which the dimensions of the magnets lie outside of this range.
Reference symbol list

1 rotor

2 stator, inner stator

3 outside stator

4 fastener, – disk

5 shaft

6 dipole magnets of the outside stator 3

7 dipole magnets of the rotor 1

8 dipole magnets (inner) of the stator 2

9 frames

10 screw connection

11 ball bearing

12 core of the inner stator 2 (= inner stator core)

13 end cap

14 transmission shaft

15 recesses of the rotor 1

16 groove

18 mounting elements

19 guide means

20 attachment columns

21a, 21 b housing plates

22 recesses of the stator 2

23 distance of the recesses 22

40 hollow cylinders

41 attachment annular disc

50 shaft axis

51 plane, vertical to the shaft axis 50

60 magnetic dipole axles of the dipole magnets 6

61 tangent

70 magnetic dipole axles of the dipole magnets 7

71 tangent

80 magnetic dipole axles of the dipole magnets 8

81 tangent of 101 hollow cylinders of the rotor 1

102 top surface of the rotor 1

120 circular cylinders of the inner stator core 12

121 ribs of the inner stator core 12,122 grooves of the inner stator core 12

125 base of the inner stator core 12

126 top surface of the inner stator core 12,150 threaded hole 511 first plane, vertical 50 512 second plane, vertical to the shaft axis, arranged to the shaft axis, 50 arranged

700 dipole magnets

701 – 708 series of magnets 7

A inclination angle b pitch angle b1 of first pitch angles b2 of second pitch angles

B16 width of the groove 16 C angle of attack D distance

D1A of outside diameters of the rotor 1

D11 of inner diameters of the rotor 1

DM6 distance

D15 diameter of the recesses 15 D16 outer diameters of the groove 16

D22 distance

E distance f distance

F1 first magnet sequences F2 second magnet sequences

G group of first magnet sequences F1 and/or. second magnet sequences F2

G1 air gap

G2 air gap

H height of J width k number of the first magnet sequences F1

M1 outer surface of the first circular cylinder Z1

M2 outer surface of the first circular cylinder Z2

M3 outer surface of the first circular cylinder Z3

M6 threaded hole

N north pole

P1, P2 of contact points

R2 radius

S south pole

TM6 depth of the threaded hole M6

T16 depth of the groove 16

T22 depth

U scope

V displacement

Z1 of first circular cylinders

Z2 of second circular cylinders

Z3 of third circular cylinders [alpha], ss, [gamma], [delta], [delta] 1, [delta] 2, [delta], [delta] 1, [lambda], [xi], [phi] angles


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NIKOLA TESLA SECRETS FOR EVERYBODY


by Vladimir Utkin (thank you Vladimir Utkin 1love)   
u.v@bk.ru

FIRST SECRET
All of Tesla’s secrets are based on
ELECTROMAGNETIC FEEDBACK
EXPLANATION: An ordinary energy system comprises a generator and motor (common view), and can be completed with an electric current feedback as shown here in electrical circuit (a)


In case (a), the system once started, will slow down and stop because of friction, resistance and so on. Nikola Tesla arranged a feedback loop for the electromagnetic field: case (b), and he said:

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD FEEDBACK DESTROYS THE INTERACTION SYMMETRY

This means that an action no longer has an equal and opposite reaction

In case (b), once started, the system will accelerate in spite of friction, resistance and so on (provided that the phase of the electromagnetic feedback is positive and is sufficiently large). In order for an electromagnetic field to exist in a motor, there must be some energy input, and Tesla said:

ENERGY GENERATION BY IT’S OWN APPLICATION
QUESTION: How can you produce positive electromagnetic field feedback?

AN ANSWER: The simplest and well-known example is Michael Faraday’s unipolar motor, as modified by Nikola Tesla:

 


An ordinary unipolar motor consists of a magnetised disk, and a voltage applied between the axis and a point on the circumference of the disc as shown in (a) above. But an ordinary unipolar motor can also consists of an external magnet and a metal disc with a voltage applied between the axis and a peripheral point on the disc as in (b) above. Tesla decided to modify this version of the unipolar motor. He cut the metal disc into helical sections as shown here:

 


In this case, the consumption of current produces an additional magnetic field along the axis of the disc. When the current-carrying wires are tilted in one direction, their magnetic field augments the main external magnetic field. When the wires are tilted in the other direction, their magnetic field reduces the main external magnetic field. So, the current flow can increase or reduce the external magnetic field of the unipolar motor.

 

Amplification is not possible without applying power

If it is possible to arrange a magnetic field feedback loop for mechanical devices, then it is probably possible to arrange it for solid-state devices like coils and capacitors. The others parts of this article are devoted to devices which use coils and capacitors. All of the examples in this article are only intended to help your understanding of the principles involved. Understanding would be made easier if we pay attention to the ferromagnetic shielding of the second coil in the transformer invented by Nikola Tesla:

 


In this case, the ferromagnetic shield separates the first and second coils in the transformer from each other, and that shield can be used as magnetic field feedback loop. This fact will be useful for understanding the final part of this article. It is also helpful to consider the properties of the electrostatic field.

 

ELECTROSTATICS
(scalar field and the longitudinal electromagnetic waves)
Comment: Mr. Tesla said, “there is radiant energy, perpendicular to the surface of any charged conductor, produced by a scalar electromagnetic field, thus giving rise to longitudinal electromagnetic waves”.

 


At first glance, this contradicts the age-old experience in studying the electromagnetic field (according to modern concepts, any electromagnetic field has components which are perpendicular to the direction of the propagated electromagnetic wave), also, Maxwell’s equations describe an electromagnetic field as a vector. However, the first impression is erroneous, and no contradiction exists.

Definitions of Physics: Any conductor has both inductance and capacitance, that is, the ability to accumulate charge on it’s surface. A charge on the surface of a conductor creates an electric field (electrostatic field). The potential (voltage) at any point of the electric field is a scalar quantity!!! (That is, it is a scalar electric field …).

 


If the electric charge of the conductor varies with time, then the electrostatic field will also vary with time, resulting in the appearance of the magnetic field component:

 


Thus, the electromagnetic wave is formed (with the longitudinal component of E …).

REMARK: In order to understand how a longitudinal wave interacts with conductive bodies, one needs to read the section of electrostatics entitled “Electrification by Influence”. Particularly interesting are Maxwell’s equations where they mention the displacement current.

 

Now we come to the first secret:
SECRET 1

The power source in Nikola Tesla’s free energy device, the amplifying transformer, is a

SELF-POWERED L-C CIRCUIT

EXPLANATIONS:

 

 

AN EXAMPLE OF UNLIMITED VOLTAGE RISE
(Based on batteries and a switch)
 


EXPLANATION:   Batteries 1 and 2 are connected to the capacitor C alternately, through the inductances L. Voltage on capacitor C and the voltage from the batteries are increasing. As a result, there can be unlimited voltage rise. When the voltage on the capacitor reaches the desired level, it is connected to the load.

COMMENT:   Two diodes were used to avoid synchronisation requirements. Manual or relay switching can be used. One implementation used a spark gap to connect the output load but a switch is an alternative method.

TIMELINE FOR THE PROCESS:

 

The schematics can be simplified, and only one battery used (load is connected in the same way).

 


COMMENT:   Maybe Alfred Hubbard used an idea shown as option B, in some versions of his transformer

 


COMMENT:   If you want to get a self-powered circuit, you have to arrange some kind of energy feedback to the batteries. But, is this an actual FE technology? I am not sure….

QUESTION: Is this the only way to do it?   No, of course not – there are different ways of doing it. For example, you can use fields inside and outside of some LC circuits. How can we do that?

For more secrets read the following parts…

 

HOW DO WE GET THIS RESULT?
AN ANSWER: You need to charge the capacitor using the electric component of the electromagnetic field of the inductor (using the displacement current of Maxwell’s equations)

 


EXPLANATION When the electric field in capacitor C is decaying, due to feeding electrical current into an inductor (not shown), the external electric field generated by the inductor tries to charge this capacitor with the inductor’s displacement current. As a result, the capacitor draws energy in from the surrounding electromagnetic field, and the capacitor’s voltage rises cycle by cycle.

IMPLEMENTATION A – a central capacitor is used:

 

IMPLEMENTATION B – no capacitors are used:

 


In this case instead of using a capacitor, the capacitance between the two sections of inductor L provides the necessary capacitance.

HOW DO WE START THE PROCESS?
In implementation A, you must charge the capacitor and connect it to the inductor to start the process.
In implementation B, you must use an additional pulsing or “kicking” coil, which starts the process by providing a pulse in either the electrical field or the magnetic field (shown later on).

HOW DO WE STOP THE PROCESS?
The process of pumping energy can continue uninterrupted for an unlimited length of time and so the question arises; how do you stop the device if you should want to?. This can be done by connecting a spark gap across the coil L and the resulting sparking will be sufficient to stop the process.

THE “KICKING” PROCESS WITH AN ELECTRIC FIELD
Use an additional special “kicking” coil, which can generate short powerful magnetic pulses, and install an amplifying Tesla coil along the electrical vector of the electromagnetic field of this coil.

 


The electrical field of the driving pulse or “kicking” coil will charge the spread capacitors of the inductor, and the process will be started. Use pulses as short as possible in “kicking” coil, because the displacement current depends on the speed of the changes in the magnetic field.

THE “KICKING” PROCESS WITH A MAGNETIC FIELD
It is not possible to “kick” the process by displacement of the amplifying Tesla coil in the uniform changing magnetic field of the “kicking” coil, because the output voltage on the ends of the Tesla amplifying coil will be equal to zero in this case. So, you must use a non-uniform magnetic field. For that you must install a “kicking” coil, not in the centre of the amplifying Tesla coil, but positioned away from the centre

 


IS THAT ALL TRUE, AND THE BEST TECHNIQUE TO USE?
No, it is not! Nikola Tesla found more subtle and more powerful method – his bi-filar pancake coil!

BI-FILAR PANCAKE COIL – MAY BE THE BEST METHOD
The voltage between adjacent turns in an ordinary coil is very low, and so their ability to generate additional energy is not good. Consequently, you need to raise the voltage between adjacent turns in an inductor.

Method: divide the inductor into separate parts, and position the turns of the first part in between the turns of the second part, and then connect end of the first coil to the beginning of the second coil. When you do that, the voltage between adjacent turns will be the same as the voltage between the ends of the whole coil !!!

Next step – rearrange the position of the magnetic and electric fields in the way needed for applying amplifying energy (as described above). The method for doing this is – the flat pancake coil where the magnetic and electric fields are arranged in exactly the way needed for amplifying energy.

 


Now, it is clear why Tesla always said that his bi-filar pancake coil was an energy-amplifying coil !!!

REMARK: for the best charging of the natural self-capacitance of the coil, you have to use electric pulses which are as short as possible, because the displacement current as shown in Maxwell’s equation, depends to a major degree on the speed of the change in the magnetic field.

THE DUAL-LAYER CYLINDRICAL BI-FILAR COIL
Instead of the standard side-by-side cylindrical bi-filar coil, the coil winding may also be arranged in two separate layers, one on top of the other:

 

 

THE ELECTRO – RADIANT EFFECT
(Inductance in an electrostatic field)

EXPLANATION
The primary coil in Tesla’s transformer is the first plate of the capacitor. The secondary coil – is the second plate of the capacitor. When you charge a capacitor C from your source of energy, you charge a wire of the primary coil also. As a result, a wire of the secondary coil is charging also (as a return from ambient space).

In order to start the process, you have to remove charge from the primary coil (by arranging a jump in potential in ambient space). When this is done, a huge displacement current occurs – as a result of that potential jump. Inductance catches this magnetic flux, and you have energy amplification.

If this process is operating, then you generate a magnetic field in ambient space.

COMMENT:   The capacitance of the wire of the primary coil is very low, and so it takes very little energy to charge it, and a very short spark to discharge it (without removing charge from the capacitor C).

COMMENT:   Notice that the spark gap must be connected to the ground as, in my opinion, this is a very important feature of this process, but Mr Tesla did not show grounding. Perhaps this needs to be a separate grounding point.

REMARK:   In my opinion, this technology was also used in Gray’s device and in Smith’s devices and in both cases the spark gap was connected to the ground.

ALSO:   Pay attention to the words used in Gray’s patent “…. for inductive load”.

And, pay attention to Smith’s words “I can see this magnetic field, if I use a magnetometer”.

 

MODERN IMPLEMENTATIONS
in self-powered L-C circuits
 

EXAMPLE 1
Using a bi-filar coil as the primary coil in a resonant Tesla transformer
By Don Smith
 


Explanation:   The bi-filar primary coil is used as primary for energy amplification, and is pulsed through the spark gap.

 


EXAMPLE 2
By Mislavskij
Is comprised of two capacitor plates sandwiching a ferrite ring core with a coil wound on it:

EXPLANATION
When a capacitor is charging (or discharging), this “displacement” current flow generates a magnetic field in the vacuum in a circular form (Maxwell’s equations). If a coil is wound on a ferrite toroid placed between the plates of the capacitor, then a voltage is generated in the turns of that coil:

 

Also, if an alternating current is applied to the coil wound on the ferrite toroid, then voltage is generated on the capacitor plates.

If an inductor and a capacitor are combined in an L-C circuit, then there are two cases inside such an L-C circuit:

a) energy amplification           and           b) energy destruction

 

The situation depends on how the coils and capacitor are connected together

COMMENT: If the direction of the turns in the coil wound on the ferrite core is reversed, then the wires connecting the coil to the capacitor plates need to be swapped over as well.

The first experiments with a ferrite core inside a capacitor were made in 1992 by Mislavskij (a 7th-year pupil of the Moscow school), and so it is known as “Mislavskij’s transformer”

THE SAME APPROACH?
By Don Smith

In this arrangement, the capacitor is charged by sparks and powerful displacement current is produced. The transformer with the ferromagnetic core is collecting this current.

 


COMMENT: This schematic diagram is very rough, and lacking in details. It will not perform correctly without back-electromagnetic force suppression of some kind (see below).

 

SECRET 1.1
Back-EMF suppression in a resonating Tesla coil
Version 1

The primary and secondary coils, and the ground connection in this Tesla coil are arranged in special manner:

 


Explanation:   The exciting (driving) current and the load current in an electromagnetic field, are perpendicular to each other as shown here:

 


COMMENT:   In order to get an energy gain, the frequency of excitation of the primary coil must be the resonant frequency of the secondary coil.

 

COMMENT:   Excitation with just a single spark is possible.

COMMENT:   In Mr. Tesla’s terminology, this is pumping charges or charge funneling, the charge is coming from the ground (which is a source of energy).

 

POTENTIAL (VOLTAGE) DISTRIBUTION ON THE COIL

EXPLANATION: The task of the oscillating circuit is to create a local electromagnetic field with a large electrical component. In theory, it would only be necessary to charge up the high voltage capacitor just once and then a lossless circuit would maintain the oscillations indefinitely without needing any further power input. In reality, there are some losses and so some additional power input is needed.

THESE OSCILLATIONS ACT AS A “BAIT”, ATTRACTING CHARGE INFLOW FROM THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT. Almost no energy is needed in order to create and maintain such a “bait”…

The next step is to move to this “bait” to one side of the circuit, close to the source of the charges which is the Ground. At this small separation, breakdown occurs and the inherent parasitic capacitance of the circuit will be instantly recharged with energy flowing into the circuit from outside.

At the ends of the circuit there will be a voltage difference, and so there will be spurious oscillations. The direction of this electromagnetic field is perpendicular to the original field of the “bait” and so it does not destroy it. This effect is due to the fact that the coil consists of two opposing halves. The parasitic oscillations gradually die out, and they do not destroy the “bait” field.

The process is repeated spark by spark for every spark which occurs. Consequently, the more often sparks occur, the greater the efficiency of the process will be. The energy in the “bait” experiences almost no dissipation, providing a much greater power output than the power needed to keep the device operating.

 

TESLA SCHEMATICS
COMMENT:   Don Smith named this technology “Bird on the wire”. The bird is safe on the wire until a spark occurs.

 


COMMENT:   Mr. Tesla named this technology a “charge funnel” or “charge pump”

 

THE PRINCIPLE OF THE TECHNOLOGY

1. This Free-Energy device generates an AC electrical potential in ambient space (“bait” for electrons),
2. Electrons flowing through the load, flow in from the environment, attracted by this “bait” (pumped in)

NOT A SINGLE ELECTRON USED FOR EXCITING AMBIENT SPACE NEEDS TO FLOW THROUGH THE LOAD

 

 

POSSIBLE DESIGN FOR THE “CHARGE PUMP” or “CHARGE FUNNEL”

By Edwin Gray
Probable Schematic for Edwin Gray’s Cold Electricity Circuit
 

EXPLANATION:   This schematic is a simplification of Gray’s patent, produced by Dr. Peter Lindemann for greater clarification in his book

 

 

A POSSIBLE DESIGN FOR THE “CHARGE PUMP” or “CHARGE FUNNEL”


EXPLANATION: The charging system is unable to “see” the field inside a charging capacitor.

COMMON VIEW OF RESONANCE: Resonance is not destroyed if you short-circuit or open a “pumping” capacitor.

 


COMMENT: You can add an ordinary, very large capacitor in parallel with the “pumping” capacitor for more impressive results.

Don Smith illustration

 


COMMENTS: You have to use an alternating E-field, in order to charge the capacitor. But, Smith marked the North and South poles in his drawing. I think that this is true for only one instant. Diodes are not shown in his drawings, which indicates that his device as shown, is, to my mind, not complete.

 

THE EXTERNAL APPEARANCE OF ED GRAY’S TUBE

EXPLANATION:
  Gray’s tube with it’s two internal grids is seen in the middle. Two diodes are underneath the acrylic sheet (???). A Leiden Jar is located on the left (???) The HF HV coil is behind Gray’s tube (???)

 

 

A POSSIBLE DESIGN FOR THE “CHARGE PUMP” or “CHARGE FUNNEL”
THE TESTATIKA by Paul Bauman

EXPLANATION: The central electrode in the jars (capacitors) is for the excitation of ambient space; the two external cylinders are the plates of the charging capacitors.

 


EXPLANATION: The charging mechanism is unable to “see” the field inside the charging capacitors.
COMMENT: For more details read the section on asymmetrical capacitors.

 

A POSSIBLE DESIGN FOR THE “CHARGE PUMP” or “CHARGE FUNNEL”

COMMENT:
  This is based on Tesla’s schematics

 


COMMENT:   First, you need to arrange a “voltage killer” barrier on one side of the Tesla coil. This is to create a “BLIND” charging system which can’t “see” the charge on the capacitor (see below for more detail on “blindness”).

COMMENTS:   Huge capacitor means: as much ordinary capacitance as possible.     Effectiveness depends on voltage and coil frequency, and current in the node.     Effectiveness depends also on the frequency at which the excitation spark occurs. It is very similar to Don Smith’s devices.

 


COMMENT:   For more details read part devoted to Avramenko’s plug…

 

POSSIBLE DESIGN FOR THE “CHARGE PUMP” or “CHARGE FUNNEL”

 


EXPLANATION:   The charging system is unable to “see” the field inside the charging capacitor

COMMENT:   For more details read part devoted to Avramenko’s plug…

COMMENT:   An ordinary piece of wire can be used in some versions of this device, read below….

 

ENERGY REGENERATION BY
L/4 COIL

COMMENT:
  This system is based on wireless energy transmission through the ground

 


COMMENT:   Energy radiated to ambient space lowers the efficiency of this process
COMMENT:   The Receiver and Transmitter coils must have the same resonant frequency

 


COMMENT:   Possible alternative arrangement:

 


COMMENT:   A metal sheet can be used instead of a long wire

 

The “COLD” and “HOT” ends of a Tesla Coil
by Donald Smith

COMMENT:   If the excitation coil L2 is positioned in the centre of coil L2, then the Tesla Coil will have a “cold” end and a “hot” end. A spark gap can only be connected to the “hot” end. You cannot get a good spark if the spark gap is connected to the “cold” end.

 

COMMENT:   This is very important for practical applications, so read Don Smith’s documents for more details.

 


COMMENT:   It is easy understand the “Hot” and “Cold” ends, if one end of Tesla Coil is grounded…

 

The Grounded Tesla coil – a hidden form of energy

EXPLANATION:
  We can look at the Tesla coil as a piece of metal. Every piece of metal can be charged. If Tesla coil is grounded, it has an extra charge delivered from the ground, and has an extra energy also. But, it can be find out only in electrostatics interactions, not in electromagnetic one.

 

Comment:   This diagram shows only one instant, after half a cycle, the polarities will be swapped over.

Question:   How can we use this fact?

Answer:   We have to arrange an electrostatic interaction:

 

Comments:
Extra capacitors can be used for charging them.

This looks like Smith’s plasma globe device. Maybe, he used this technology.

This can be used in charge pump technology for excitation by an alternating electrical field, read the section on the charge pump or charge funnel.

The wiring can be different to that shown above.

 

Examples of grounded bifilar (multi-strand) coils
From Tariel Kapanadze in his 100 KW device
 

 

from Steven Mark in big TPU
 

 

from Donald Smith
 

 


Both of the two out of phase outputs were used and both connected to the step-down transformer.

1. Between sparks:
There is no current in the step-down transformer and so the two ends of L2 are at the same voltage.

2. During a spark:
Parasitic capacitors (not shown) of L2 (it’s up and down parts) are discharged to the ground, and current is produced in the step-down transformer. One end of L2 is at ground potential. But, the magnetic field of this current in L2 is perpendicular to the resonating field and so has no influence on it. As a result of this, you have power in the load, but the resonance is not destroyed.

COMMENTS:   In my opinion, these schematics have errors in the excitation section. Find those errors.

Excitation by a single spark is possible.

In the terminology of Mr. Tesla, this is a ‘charge pump’ or ‘charge funnel’.

The charges are coming from the Ground which is the source of the energy.

 

There are more secrets in the following parts.
SECRET 1.1
Back EMF suppression in a resonance coil
Version 2

Primary and secondary coils are placed on a rod core. All of the coils are arranged in special manner. The primary coil is placed in the middle of the core. The secondary coil is in two parts which are positioned at the ends of the rod. All of the coils are wound in the same direction.

 


Explanation:
The electromagnetic fields produced by the resonant (excitation) current and the load current are perpendicular to each other:

 

 

So, although you have power in the load, resonance is not destroyed by that output power.
COMMENTS:   The load must be chosen so as to get the maximum amount of power flowing into it. Very low loads and very high loads will both have close to zero energy flowing in them.

The secondary coil is shunting the primary coil, and so it has a current flowing in it even id no loads are connected.

The secondary coil can be adjusted for resonance too.

 

The “rod” material can be air, or other materials.
SECRET 1.1
Back EMF suppression in a resonance coil
Version 3
(long line usage – bifilar usage)

EXPLANATION:   It is very much like Version 1, but here, the two coils are combined into a single coil.

 

IT IS IMPOSSIBLE!
(Without back EMF suppression)
By Don Smith


Multi-coil system for energy multiplication
COMMENT:   You decide how you think it was made.   Maybe short-circuited coils will be useful…

 

Read the following parts to discover more secrets…
 

IMODERN OPTIONS?
For Back EMF suppression
Version 3

BI-FILAR USAGE
By Tariel Kapanadze

 

BI-FILAR USAGE
By Timothy Trapp

 


COMMENT:   See Trapp’s sites for more details

 

POSSIBLE CORE CONFIGURATION
For back EMF suppression

COMMENTS:   An ordinary excitation winding is wound all of the way around a toroidal core. A bi-filar output winding is wound around the whole of a toroidal core. Remember about the “Hot” and “Cold” ends of a bi-filar coil.

COMMENT:   Remember about the “Hot” and “Cold” ends of the output coil

 

 

THE BASIS OF BACK EMF SUPPRESSION
(Tesla patent)
 

SECRET 1.2
The Spark-Exciting Generator (“SEG”)

(Charge delivering to LC circuit)

 


EXPLANATION:

The spark delivers charge to the L-C circuit

The charge Q on a capacitor C with voltage U is: Q = U x C or U = Q / C

Where Q is a charge delivered by one spark.

During the excitation of the L-C circuit by the sparks, the capacitance C is constant.
After N excitations, the voltage Un on C will be Un = N x Q / C And, energy En will be raised as N2.
In other words, If the L-C circuit is excited by charges, we have energy amplification.

 


COMMENT: You need to understand that a feedback loop in the electromagnetic field is a changing voltage level in the L-C circuit capacitor, a high-voltage transformer is connected to collect the excess energy.

 

WITHOUT SYNCHRONISATION
The Spark-Exciting Generator
From Don Smith
 

MAINTAIN RESONANCE AND GET FREE-ENERGY !!
EXPLANATION:
  It appears that we need to charge the capacitor circuit to an energy level which is greater than that of the source energy itself. At first glance, this appears to be an impossible task, but the problem is actually solved quite simply.

The charging system is screened, or “blinded”, to use the terminology of Mr. Tesla, so that it cannot “see” the presence of the charge in the capacitor. To accomplish this, one end of a capacitor is connected to the ground and the other end is connected to the high-energy coil, the second end of which is free. After connecting to this higher energy level from the energising coil, electrons from the ground can charge a capacitor to a very high level.

In this case, the charging system does not “see” what charge is already in a capacitor. Each pulse is treated as if it were the first pulse ever generated. Thus, the capacitor can reach a higher energy level than of the source itself.

After the accumulation of the energy, it is discharged to the load through the discharge spark gap. After that, the process is repeated again and again indefinitely …

COMMENT:   The frequency of the excitation sparks, must match the resonant frequency of the output coil. (capacitors 2 and 14 are used to achieve this goal). This is multi-spark excitation.

COMMENT:   Charges are pumping from the ground to 11-15 circuit, this device extracts charge from ambient space. Because of this, it will not work properly without a ground connection. If you need Mains frequency, or don’t want use an output spark, then read the following parts…

Asymmetrical transformers can be used (read the following parts)

 

POSSIBLE SEG ARRANGEMENT
(From Russian forum)

COMMENT:   The L1 Tesla coil shown above, is energised by spark f1. Resonant, step-down transformer L2 is connected to the L1 Tesla coil by output spark f2. The frequency of f1 is much higher than that of f2.

 

SEG WITHOUT SYNCHRONISATION
From Don Smith

REMARK: It must be adjusted by dimensions, materials (???)

EXPLANATION

REMINDER: An ordinary capacitor is a device for separating charges on it’s plates, the total charge inside an ordinary capacitor is zero (read the textbooks).

 


There is an electrical field only inside the capacitor. The electrical field outside the capacitor is zero (because the fields cancel each other).

So far, connecting one plate to the ground we will get no current flowing in this circuit:

 


REMINDER: A separated capacitor is a device for accumulating charges on it’s plates.   The total charge on a separated capacitor is NOT zero (read the textbooks). So far, by connecting one plate of the separated capacitor to the ground we will get a current flowing in this circuit (because there is an external field).

 


REMARK: We get the same situation, if only one plate of an ordinary capacitor is charged. So far, connecting an uncharged plate of an ordinary capacitor to the ground we get a current flowing in this circuit also (because you have an external field).

 

 

Alternately charging a capacitor’s plates
Avramenko’s plug – is it a free energy device?
The principle: Each plate of a capacitor charges as a separated capacitor. Charging takes place in an alternating fashion, first one plate and then the other plate.

 


The result: The capacitor is charged to a voltage which is greater than that which the charging system delivers.

Explanation: The external field of an ordinary charged capacitor is equal to or near zero, as noted above. So, if you charge plates as a separated capacitor (upload or download charge), the charging system will not “see” the field which already exists inside the capacitor, and will charge the plates as if the field inside the capacitor is absent.

 

Once a plate has been charged, begin to charge another plate.

 


After the second plate of the capacitor has been charged, the external field becomes zero again. The charging system cannot “see” the field inside the capacitor once again and the process repeats again several times, raising the voltage until the spark gap connected to the output load discharges it.

REMARK: You will recall that an ordinary capacitor is a device for charge separation. The charging process of a capacitor causes electrons from on one plate to be “pumped” to another plate. After that, there is an excess of electrons on one plate, while the other one has deficit, and that creates a potential difference between them (read the textbooks). The total amount of charge inside the capacitor does not change. Thus the task of the charging system is to move charge temporarily from one plate to another.

 

The simplest Free-Energy device (???)

REMARK:
The capacitance of an ordinary capacitor is much greater than the capacitance of a separated plate capacitor (if it’s plates are close to each other).

 


COMMENT: The time between S1 and S2 is very short.

 


REMARK: This is an illustration of energy-dependence in a coordinated system.

REMARK: This is an illustration of the so-called Zero-Point Energy.

 

ASYMMETRICAL CAPACITOR
(Current amplification???)
 


COMMENT: The capacitance (size) of the plate on the right is much greater than that of the plate on the left.

 


COMMENT: Charges from the ground will run on to the right hand plate UNTIL the moment when the external field drops to zero caused by the second spark (“S2”). It takes more charges flowing from the ground to annihilate the external field at the instant of the second spark, because the capacitance of the plate on the right is far greater. ‘More charge’ means ‘more current’, so you have achieved current amplification through this arrangement.

COMMENT: The field at the terminals of the plate on the right is not zero after both sparks have occurred, this is because a field remains due to the additional charges which have flowed in (‘pumped’) from the ground.

 

THE SIMPLEST ASYMMETRICAL CAPACITORS

The most simple asymmetrical capacitors are the Leyden jar and the coaxial cable (also invented by Mr. Tesla).

 


Apart from the fact that the area (capacitance) of the plates of these capacitors is different, and they therefore are asymmetrical, they have another property:
The electrostatic field of the external electrode of these devices does not affect the internal electrode.

 


EXPLANATION: This is caused by the fact that the electrostatic field is absent inside the metal bodies (see textbooks).

REMARK: This is true provided that the plates are charged separately.

 

CAPACITOR – TRIODE


REMARK: Dr. Harold Aspden has pointed out the possibility of Energy Amplification when using this device.

 

THE PRINCIPLE OF THE “BLINDNESS”
CHARGING SYSTEM IN THE SEG

EXPLANATION:   A “short” coil is not able to see oscillations in “long” coil, because the total number of magnetic lines from “long” coil through “short” coil is close to zero (one half is in one direction and one half is in opposite direction).

COMMENT:   This a private case of asymmetrical transformer, for more details read part devoted to asymmetrical transformers.

 

COMMENTS ABOUT THE SEG:
All Back EMF schematics can be used in SEG

COMMENT:   No current will be produced in the load unless there is a ground connection in any of these circuits. Is excitation possible with just a single spark (???)

 

FOR MORE ASYMMETRY IN SEG ?
FOR ONE SPARK EXCITING IN SEG ?

By Don Smith

COMMENT:   This arrangement becomes more asymmetrical after excitation.

 

EXPLANATION
Symmetry is destroyed by a spark
If the impedances of Ra and Rc are the same at the frequency produced by signal generator F1, then the resulting voltage at points A and B will also be identical which means that there will be zero output.

 

If the circuit is excited by the very sharp, positive-only, DC voltage spike produced by a spark, then the impedances of Ra and Rc are not the same and there is a non-zero output.

Here is a possible alternative. Please note that the position of the output coil must be adjusted, it’s best position depending on value of resistor Rc and the frequency being produced by signal generator F1.

 

Here is another possible arrangement. Here, the position of the output coil depends on L1 and L2:

 

 

A NOMOGRAPH

Using a nomograph: Draw a straight line from your chosen 30 kHz frequency (purple line) through your chosen 100 nanofarad capacitor value and carry the line on as far as the (blue) inductance line as shown above.

You can now read the reactance off the red line, which looks like 51 ohms to me. This means that when the circuit is running at a frequency of 30 kHz, then the current flow through your 100 nF capacitor will be the same as through a 51 ohm resistor. Reading off the blue “Inductance” line that same current flow at that frequency would occur with a coil which has an inductance of 0.28 millihenries.

 

MODERN OPTIONS IN SEG
Back EMF suppression in resonance coil
Version 3
By Don Smith
COMMENT:   Please note that a long wire is used and one-spark excitation, where additional capacitors are used to create non-symmetry (???)

 

Version???
By Don Smith

Multi coil system for energy multiplication

Version???
By Tariel Kapanadze

KAPANADZE PROCESS
The process requires only 4 steps:
STEP 1

An L-C (coil-capacitor) circuit is pulsed and it’s resonant frequency determined (possibly by feeding it power through a spark gap and adjusting a nearby coil for maximum power collection).

 

STEP 2The SEG process causes the energy level in the L-C circuit to rise. Power is fed via a spark gap which produces a very sharp square wave signal which contains every frequency in it. The L-C circuit automatically resonates at it’s own frequency in the same way that a bell always produces the same musical frequency when struck, no matter how it is struck.

 

STEP 3The output waveform from the L-C circuit is then manipulated to provide an output which oscillates at the frequency on the local mains supply (50 Hz or 60 Hz typically).

 

STEP 4Finally, the oscillations are smoothed by filtering to provide mains-frequency output power.

 

COMMENT:   All of these processes are described in Kapanadze’s patents and so, no state or private confidential information is shown here. Kapanadze’s process is the SEG process.

COMMENT:   As I see it, the main difference between the designs of Don Smith and Tariel Kapanadze is the inverter or modulator in the output circuit. At mains frequency you need a huge transformer core in a powerful inverter.

 

Read the following parts to discover more secrets…
 

MODERN OPTION
Lowering the L-C frequency to mains frequency (Modulation)

COMMENTS:   It is possible to use square waves instead of sine waves to ease the loading on the transistors. This is very similar to the output sections of Tariel Kapanadze’s patents. This method does not require a powerful transformer with a huge core in order to provide 50 Hz or 60 Hz.

Don Smith’s option (guessed at by Patrick Kelly)

 

COMMENT:   There is no high-frequency high-voltage step-down transformer, but a step-down transformer is used for mains frequency which means that it will need a huge core.

FOR BOTH SCHEMATICS:
You must choose the load in order to get the maximum power output. Very low, and very high loads will give almost no energy in the load (because the current flowing in the output circuit is restricted by the current flowing in the resonant circuit).

 

ILLUSTRATIONS FOR FREQUENCY LOWERING
From Tariel Kapanadze
 

 

 

ENERGY GAIN
(REMARKS on 1.1 and 1.2 SECRETS)
We must consider two options:
1. Back-EMF suppression . . . . . . . (1.1).
2. Excitation by a spark . . . . . . . . . (1.2).

THESE OPTIONS ARE DIFFERENT

However, in both cases, an increase of energy occurs due to the charges being pumped in from the ground. In the terminology of Mr. Tesla – “a charge funnel” or in modern terminology “a charge pump”.

1. In the first case, the problem for the oscillating circuit is to “create” an electromagnetic field which has a high intensity electrical component in ambient space. (Ideally, it is only necessary for the high-voltage capacitor be fully charged once. After that, if the circuit is lossless, then oscillation will be maintained indefinitely without the need for any further input power).

THIS IS A “BAIT” TO ATTRACT CHARGES FROM THE AMBIENT SPACE.

Only a tiny amount of energy is needed to create such a “bait”…

Next, move the “bait” to one side of the circuit, the side which is the source of the charges (Ground). The separation between the “bait” and the charges is now so small that breakdown occurs. The inherent parasitic capacitance of the circuit will be instantly charged, creating a voltage difference at the opposite ends of the circuit, which in turn causes spurious oscillations. The energy contained in these oscillations is the energy gain which we want to capture and use. This energy powers the load. This very useful electromagnetic field containing our excess power oscillates in a direction which is perpendicular to the direction of oscillation of the “bait” field and because of this very important difference, the output power oscillations do not destroy it. This vital factor happens because the coil is wound with two opposing halves. The parasitic oscillations gradually die out, passing all of their energy to the load.

This energy-gaining process is repeated, spark by spark. The more often a spark occurs, the higher the excess power output will be. That is, the higher the spark frequency (caused by a higher voltage across the spark gap), the higher the power output and the greater the efficiency of the process. Hardly any additional “bait” energy is ever required.

2. In the second case we must charge the capacitor circuit to an energy level higher than that of the source energy itself. At first glance, this appears to be an impossible task, but the problem is solved quite easily.

The charging system is screened, or “blinded”, to use the terminology of Mr. Tesla, so that it cannot “see” the presence of the charge in the capacitor. To accomplish this, one end of a capacitor is connected to the ground and the other end is connected to the high-energy coil, the second end of which is free. After connecting to this higher energy level from the energising coil, electrons from the ground can charge a capacitor to a very high level.

In this case, the charging system does not “see” what charge is already in a capacitor. Each pulse is treated as if it were the first pulse ever generated. Thus, the capacitor can reach a higher energy level than that of the source itself.

After the accumulation of the energy, it is discharged to the load through the discharge spark gap. After that, the process is repeated again and again indefinitely …

THIS PROCESS DOES NOT REQUIRE THE SUPPRESSION OF BACK-EMF

3. It should be noted, that option 1 and option 2 above could be combined.

 

SECRET 2
SWITCHABLE INDUCTANCE
The inductance is comprised of two coils which are positioned close to each other. Their connections are shown in front.

 

CONSTRUCTION: When constructing this arrangement there are many different options due to the various types of core which can be used for the coils:

1. Air-core
2. A ferromagnetic bar core
3. A ferromagnetic toroidal core
4. A transformer style ferromagnetic core.

 

PROPERTIES: (tested many times with a variety of cores)
The value of the total inductance LS does not change if you short one of the inductors L1 or L2
(This may have been tested for the first time by Mr. Tesla back in the 19th century).

APPLICATION TECHNIQUE:
This energy generation is based on the asymmetrical process:
1. Feed the total inductance LS with a current I
2. Then short-circuit one of the inductors (say, L1)
3. Drain the energy from inductor L2 into a capacitor
4. After draining L2, then remove the short-circuit from L1, short-circuit L2 and then drain the energy from L1 into a capacitor

QUESTION:   Is it possible, using this method, to get twice the energy amount due to the asymmetry of the process, and if not, then what is wrong?

AN ANSWER  : We need to start winding coils and performing tests.

 

EXAMPLES OF COILS ACTUALLY CONSTRUCTED

A coil was wound on a transformer ferromagnetic core (the size is not important) with permeability 2500 (not important) which was designed as a power-supply transformer. Each half-coil was 200 turns (not important), of 0.33 mm diameter wire (not important). The total inductance LS is about 2 mH (not important).

 


A coil was wound on a toroidal ferromagnetic core with permeability 1000 (not important). Each half-coil was 200 turns (not important), of 0.33 mm diameter wire (not important). The total inductance LS is about 4 mH (not important).

 


An ordinary laminated iron core transformer intended for 50-60 Hz power supply use (size is not important) was wound with a coil placed on each of it’s two halves. The total inductance LS is about 100 mH (not important).

THE OBJECTIVE OF THE TESTS
To make tests to confirm the properties of the coils, and then make measurements of the LS inductance both with coil L2 short-circuited and coil L2 not short-circuited, and then compare the results.

COMMENT:   All of the tests can be done with just the toroidal coil as the other coils have been shown to have the same properties. You can repeat these tests and confirm this for yourself.

OPTION 1
These simple inductance measurements can be carried out with the help of an ordinary RLC (Resistance / Inductance / Capacitance) meter, such as the one shown here:

 

The measurements taken:
The total coil inductance LS was measured without short-circuited coils, the figure was recorded. The L2 coil was then short-circuited and the inductance LS measured again and the result recorded. Then, the results of the two measurements were compared.

The result: The inductance LS was unchanged (to an accuracy of about a one percent).

OPTION 2
A special set-up was used, consisting of an analogue oscilloscope, a digital voltmeter and a signal generator, to measure a voltage on the inductance LS without L2 being short-circuited and then with L2 short-circuited.

 

After the measurements were made, all of the results were compared.

Schematic of the set-up:

 

The order in which the measurements were taken.
The voltage on the resistor was measured using the oscilloscope and the voltage on the inductor was measured using the voltmeter. Readings were taken before and after short-circuiting L2.

The result:   The voltages remained unchanged (to an accuracy of about one percent).

Additional measurements
Before the above measurements were taken, the voltages across L1 and L2 were measured. The voltage on both halves was a half of the voltage on the total inductor LS.

COMMENT:   The frequency of about 10 kHz was chosen because the coil did not have parasitic resonances at this frequency or at low frequencies. All measurements were repeated using a coil with a ferromagnetic E-shaped transformer core. All of the results were the same.

OPTION 3
Capacitor recharge.
The objective was to match voltages on a capacitor, both before and after it being recharged by interaction with an inductor which could be connected into the circuit via a switch.

 

The experiment conditions
A capacitor is charged from a battery and is connected to the inductor through the first diode (included to give protection against oscillations). At the moment of feedback, half of the inductor is shunted by the second diode (due to it’s polarity), while the inductance must remain unchanged. If after recharging the capacitor the capacitor voltage is the same (but with reversed polarity), then generation will have taken place (because a half of the energy remains in the shunted half of the inductor).

 

In theory, it is impossible, for an ordinary inductor consisting of two coils to do this.
The result :

The result confirms the prediction – the remaining energy is more than the capacitor gives to the coil (with an accuracy of 20%).

Test components:
Capacitor 47 nano Farads, inductor LS is about 2 mH , Shotky silicon diodes BAT42, voltage used: 12 V.

THE RESULT VERIFICATION FOR OPTION 3
For verification of these results and in order to improve the accuracy, all measurements were repeated using alternative components.

Test components: Capacitor: 1.5 nano Farads; total inductance: 1.6 mH, germanium diodes: (Russian) D311, charging voltage: 5V.

The result: Confirmation of the previous measurements (a) shown below

 

(a)                                                                             (b)


The recharging accuracy was improved to 10 percent. Also, a check measurement was made without the second diode. The result was essentially the same as the measurement which used the shunting diode. The missing 10 percent of the voltage can be explained as losses due to the spread capacitor’s inductance and in it’s resistance.

CONTINUED TESTING
The shunting diode was reversed and the test performed again:

 

   
The result: It seems that the charge is spot on…

Further testing
An oscilloscope was connected to the coil instead of to the capacitor, in order to avoid influence of the first diode so the oscillations viewed were based on the inductance of the spread capacitors.

 

   
 

   
The result: The accuracy of capacitor recharging was improved to 5 percent (due to the removal of the influence of the first diode). After the main capacitor was switched off (by the diode), you can see oscillations caused by the spread capacitance of the inductors. Based on the frequency of the oscillations which were 4 to 5 times higher than that of the main capacitor, one can estimate the spread capacitance as being 16 to 25 times lower than the main capacitor.

Still further testing
Testing of the oscillation circuit shunting, with the two cases combined (and without the first diode):

 

   
The result: A contour (oscillation circuit) is not destroyed, but it is shunted a lot. One can explain it by considering the moments when both diodes are conducting and so, shunt the circuit. As an addition, the voltage on the down diode is shown (the time scale is stretched). The negative voltage is close to maximum.

 

Still further testing
Charging a capacitor by shunting current in oscillation mode.

 

   
 

   
Conditions:   The addition of a charging capacitor of 47 nano Farads.

The result: A capacitor is charging without shunting the circuit. The final voltage on it is 0.8 V, and rises an falls of the voltage depend on the value of the capacitor.

THE OVERALL RESULTS OF THE TESTS (OPTIONS 1, 2 and 3)
The symmetry of interaction in systems with electromagnetic field feedback (as with switched inductance) appears to be violated, and this implies that this arrangement could be used to generate energy.

COMMENT:   You need to choose the load in order to get the maximum power output. Very low, and very high loads, will send almost no energy to the load.

 

ILLUSTRATION FOR SWITCHABLE INDUCTANCE

EXPLANATION:   The circuit has two kinds of currents: the main current and the shunting current.

 

The main and the shunting currents run through the same output capacitor in one direction, if the output capacitor is discharged.

 

There is no shunting current, if the output capacitor is charged.

 

ILLUSTRATION FOR SWITCHABLE INDUCTANCE
From Don Smith

EXPLANATION: As Don Smith said, two detector receivers were combined, and one FE device was constructed.

 


COMMENT: Don Smith produced this explanation as a PDF file; maybe you’ll be able to find it on the internet.
COMMENT: The resistance of the load must be chosen so as to get the maximum possible power in it.
COMMENT: The “board” does not contain an output circuit, because a couple of spark gaps and one step-down transformer can be used instead of diodes and a capacitor (this was pointe

 

MECHANICAL (INERTIAL) ANALOGUE OF SWITCHABLE INDUCTANCE
From Tariel Kapanadze
 

 


EXPLANATION: When one pendulum is stopping the other is accelerating. The controlling mechanism connects the pendulums to the output generator one after the other and so maintains the oscillations.

 

CONNECTING EXTRA MASS TO A MECHANICAL OSCILLATOR


EXPLANATION:
  Mechanical energy can be stored in any spring by compressing it or stretching it (1). It corresponds to two positions in a mechanical oscillator (2), when only potential energy takes place in an oscillating process

 


EXPLANATION:   If extra mass is connecting periodically to one side or the other, of a mechanical oscillator, it will be shifting without any energy loss during the oscillation process.

 

THE PRINCIPLE OF AMPLIFICATION OF MECHANICAL ENERGY


EXPLANATION:
  The principle is based on an asymmetrical flywheel (1) consisting of a small mass and a large mass. These masses are balanced across the centre of rotation, that is, are located at a distance proportional to their weights, from the center of rotation. This helps to avoid vibration when they are rotating (the same principle used when balancing a car wheel).

 


The inertial moment of such a flywheel (1) is analogous to the inertial moments of flywheels (2) and (3), consisting only of large or small masses. However, from the point of view of kinetic energy, all of these examples, (1), (2) and (3) are different. This is because the kinetic energy of every mass depends on the direction and speed at which it moves (if is released during rotation). The highest common kinetic energy is in the masses of flywheel (3), as less energy is contained in flywheel (1) and the smallest kinetic energy is in flywheel (2). In order to get an increase in energy one needs to achieve a set-up which is based on a spring (for energy transformation from kinetic energy to potential energy and back again) and a lever of Archimedes (for changing the point where the force is applied).

 


Comments:
1. The simplified schematic diagrams shown here are for explanation purposes only.
2. In an actual device, you can use a spring in rotation mode (as Tariel Kapanadze did).
3. You can use disks and rings as flywheel masses (as Tariel Kapanadze did).
4. Altering one mass to another is actually achieved by connecting them in various ways.

 


Comment:   Any asymmetrical mechanical oscillator behaves as indicated above, when the potential energy of a compressed spring is transformed into the kinetic energy of moving masses.

 


The potential energy of the spring is distributed unequally between the small and large masses. A small mass acquires more energy relative to it’s size than a large mass does. The sum of the kinetic energies of both masses is equal to the potential energy of the spring.

Comment:   This is based on Tesla’s asymmetrical schematic:

 

 

FLYWHEEL – A HIDDEN FORM OF ENERGY
(Clarifications on mechanical energy amplification)

EXPLANATION:   If you don’t want to lose mechanical energy when doing work, then this work must be done by an imaging force. This force is absent in an inertial coordinate system, but it is present in a non-inertial coordinate system. When in a rotational coordinate system this force is called ‘centrifugal’ force.

 


Comment:   After the work is done, the centrifugal force is low and if you want to continue producing mechanical work, you have to use the other coordinate system where centrifugal force is high again. This is possible because linear velocity does not change. You have to provide the other support point only (and a cord) in order to produce mechanical energy again.

Comment:   If you want to make this mechanical work continuous, then the end of the first track must also be the beginning of the second track. You have to change coordinate system periodically.

 


Comment:   In a real situation, you have to compensate for energy loss due to friction and so a part of the excess energy must be used to maintain the process.

 

ILLUSTRATION FOR SWITCHABLE INDUCTANCE
From Alfred Hubbard
 


EXPLANATION:   The center coil and all of the peripheral coils can “grasp” the same flux coming from the resonance coil. All other details are the same as in Smith’s version.

COMMENTS:   In other words, you can use rods as the coil core, instead of a closed ferromagnetic core.   But, this is not the only option in Hubbard’s device. He may have had another one, based on a different principle, perhaps the principle of energy amplification in an LC circuit as described earlier, but with switchable inductance being used.

 

 

MODERN OPTIONS?
In switchable inductance
Version 1
A coil has more inductance when some of it’s parts are short-circuited:

 

   
EXPLANATION:   The central section of the coil and it’s two end sections are wound in opposite directions.

COMMENT:   The coil shown in the picture above has twice the inductance, when it’s end sections are short-circuited (measurements made with the Chinese-built RLC test meter shown here:

 

But, this looks like resonance in an asymmetrical transformer ?????

Version 3
By Tariel Kapanadze

 

No description …???

Read on for further details….

THE BASIS OF SWITCHABLE INDUCTANCES
(Tesla patent)

SECRET 3
THE ASYMMETRICAL TRANSFORMER

With a magnetic field feedback loop (evolution of the 2nd secret)

LENZ LAW IS VIOLATED IN AN ASYMMETRICAL TRANSFORMER
(Therefore it is not possible to use it as an ordinary transformer)

An asymmetrical transformer can have two coils: L2 and LS. Coil L2 is wound on one side of the toroidal core while LS is wound so that it encloses both the toroid and the coil L2 as shown here:

 

         
Optionally, this arrangement can be implemented with a wide range of styles of transformer core:

 

         
One option is to use the above (switched inductor) arrangement and add one more coil:

 

         
Now that you understand the operational principles of this system, you can use any configuration which you need. For example:

 

ILLUSTRATION FOR AN ASYMMETRICAL TRANSFORMER OF SOME KIND

THE MECHANICAL EQUIVALENT OF AN ASYMMETRICAL TRANSFORMER

This example shows an ordinary transformer, wound on an E-core plus an external excitation magnet:

 

In other words: L2 is still used, but instead of LS the exciting magnet is used.

The result:
1. The voltage developed across coil L2 depends on the number of turns in L2, but the short-circuit current through L2 does NOT depend on the number of turns in coil L2.

2. You need to choose the load connected to L2 in order to get the maximum power output. Very low, and very high loads, will give almost no power output.

 

RESONANCE IN AN ASYMMETRICAL TRANSFORMER

The first coil is used as a transmitter of energy, and the second coil as a receiver of energy.

It is very like radio broadcasting, where the receiver is located far away from the transmitter, and has no feedback. The first coil works in parallel resonance and the second coil in serial resonance (although the two schematic diagrams look alike).

 

CONSEQUENTLY:   You can get much more voltage on L2 than on LS

An experiment:

Conditions:
The resonance frequency is about 10 kHz. The total inductance LS is 2.2 mH, the L2 inductance (same as the L1 inductance) is 100 mH, the ratio LS:L2 is 1:45 with an E-shape core, permeability is 2500.

The result:
At the resonance frequency, there can be a voltage which is 50 times more on any parts (L1 or L2) matched with the total coil LS, and voltage changes on R are no more 15 percent.

 

The phase shift in voltage is about 90 degrees between LS and L2.

(The amplitudes were equalised)

Further
An additional step-down coil LD was wound around L2, turns ratio 50:1 (matched with L2), and the load resistor RL = 100 Ohms was connected to it.

The result
Changes in current consumption (estimated by measuring the voltage across R) are no more 15 percent.

 

MODERN OPTIONS IN USAGE OF AN
Asymmetrical transformer

By Don Smith
The schematic is like this:

 

   
COMMENTS:   Between sparks, L2 has a voltage on it’s ends. If RL is connected directly to L2 then there will be no output current without resonance and there will be no output current without a spark.

MORE ACCURATE:

COMMENTS:   L2 has no voltage on it’s ends (without a spark). This is ordinary back-EMF suppression, invented by Nikola Tesla.


COMMENT:   L2 has no voltage on it’s ends (without a spark).

 

Secret 3.1
THE ASYMMETRICAL TRANSFORMER BASED
ON THE SHORT-CIRCUITED COIL
INTRODUCTION
Remark: Voltage distribution on the shorted coil depends on the position of the exciting coil.


DESCRIPTION
CASE 1   The excitation coil is centered:

Result:   We have the full period of the voltage distribution on the short-circuited coil

 

CONSTRUCTION OF THE ASYMMETRICAL TRANSFORMER
based on the short-circuited coil

CASE 1   The short-circuited coil is wound in one direction

 

Result:   The output does not influence the input in any way.

Explanation:   The signal from the output coil generates zero voltage difference on the input coil.

Remark:   The position of the coils should be adjusted in order to give the best result.

CASE 2   The short-circuited coil is wound in opposite directions from the centre outwards, and only half of the coil is short-circuited:

 

Result:   The output has no influence on the input coil

Explanation:   The signal from the output coil generates zero voltage difference on the input coil.

Remark:   The position of the input coil needs to be adjusted to get the best result.

Remark:   The coil’s position depends on permeability of the core. More permeability means more alike with distribution pointed at the beginning.

Best Position:   To find the best coil position, connect the signal generator to the output, and then find the coil position which shows zero at the input terminals. Alternatively, use an RLC meter connected to the input terminals and then find the coil position which gives no change in reading when the output terminals are short-circuited (for both case 1 and case 2).

Comment: The length of the wire, the total length of the coil, and the diameter of the coil are not important. The number of turns in the input and output coils plays the same role as in an ordinary transformer, for both case 1 and case 2.

 

MODERN APPLICATIONS FOR SHORT-CIRCUITED COILS
By Don Smith
CASE 1

 

CASE 2

 

REMARK:   The position of the coils must be adjusted until the output has zero influence on the input.

REMEMBER:   None of the (input) energy used for exciting ambient space should appear in the load.

 

AN EXAMPLE OF CASE 2
By Don Smith

COMMENTS:   The output coil can be adjusted to resonate with the input coil, but this is not important for understanding the principle. Excitation with just one spark is possible (not in resonance), but the frequency of the sparks influences the output power directly.

 


COMMENTS:   The resonant frequency of the circuit is about 60-70 kHz, but dimmer is for 30-35 kHz.  Voltage/frequency technology was used for adjusting the excitation frequency.  Two parameters have to be adjusted: the position of the slider and the excitation frequency.

 

MODERN APPLICATION FOR SHORT-CIRCUITED COILS
By William Barbat
US Patent Application number 2007/0007844

Self-Sustaining Electric-Power Generator Utilizing Electrons of Low Inertial Mass to Magnify Inductive Energy


COMMENT:   In order to understand this device, you have to read Barbat’s patent application US 2007/0007844 A1:   available here

COMMENT:   I would like to point out that externally, it looks very much like Alfred Hubbard’s device.

 

AN EXAMPLE OF CASE 1
By Tariel Kapanadze

COMMENT:   Adjust the positions of the coils to get the best result.

 

AN EXAMPLE OF CASE 1
By Steven Mark

TPU
REMARK:
An idea – an asymmetrical transformer based on the shorted-circuited coil:

 

               
REMARK:   The positions of the coils must be properly adjusted, in order to have no transmission feedback from the output to the input. To understand this better, read the part which is devoted to switchable inductance.

EXPLANATION:

THE BASIS OF THE TPU

(Tesla Patent)

REMEMBER:
The position of the coils must be adjusted. The easiest way to do this is to add or remove turns at the ends of the coils.

 

 

AN EXAMPLE OF CASE 2
By Tariel Kapanadze
Mechanical device

               

 

MODERN USE OF SHORT-CIRCUITED COILS
by Cherepanov Valera (‘SR193’ in Russian forum)

COMMENT:   This arrangement does not have an OU effect, but it can be used for back-EMF suppression in resonance (spark excited) mode to get a laser effect (very exciting summation effects).

 

COMMENT:   This was copied from this device of Tariel Kapanadze (???).

 

Don Smith

COMMENT:   Mr. Tesla said: “The optimum relation for the main and additional coil is 3/4L and L/4”. Is that ratio used here?

COMMENT:   If you don’t understand this schematic, look at simplest version of the coil.

 


COMMENT: This is an instance of case 1 where the output coil was removed, and some of the turns of the short-circuited coil were used instead.

THE ASYMMETRICAL TRANSFORMER (BASED ON A SHORT-CIRCUITED COIL)
COMBINED WITH A STEP-DOWN TRANSFORMER?

By Don Smith

THE RELATIONSHIPS of Don Smith’s TPU size and position are important.

REMARK: Those relationships are used to produce an asymmetrical transformer

MECHANICAL ANALOGUE OF THE
ASYMMETRICAL TRANSFORMER
CASE 2

By Don Smith

Schematic:

REMEMBER:   Any asymmetrical transformer must be adjusted.

REMARK:   Don Smith placed magnets inside the coils, but that is not important for understanding the process as his device does not match the schematic.

SOME REMARKS ON ASYMMETRICAL IN-FRONT CONNECTION
(Useful remarks)

Some turns were added on one half of the coil, and some turns were removed from the other half. An additional magnetic field H3 was created, with inductance – LD.

RESULT:   A large part of the total inductance acts as an inductor, and a small part acts as a capacitor.
This is a well known fact (read books). The total voltage on the coil is less than on it’s halves.

Here is the result of a capacitor discharging into this coil:

SECRET 4
CURRENT AMPLIFICATION

If a lot of asymmetric transformers are placed with a common flux flow through them, they will have no influence on this flux flow, as any one asymmetric transformer does not have any influence on the flux flow. If the secondary L2 transformer coils are then connected in parallel, this produces current amplification.

AS A RESULT
You have an asymmetric transformer arranged in a stack:

For flat (uniform) field inside of LS, it can be arranged with additional turns at it’s ends.

EXAMPLES OF COILS WHICH WERE ACTUALLY CONSTRUCTED

The coils are constructed from 5 sections, made from E-type ferrite core with a permeability of 2500, and wound using plastic-covered wire. The central sections L2 have 25 turns, and edge sections have 36 turns (to equalise the voltage on them). All sections are connected in parallel. The coil LS has magnetic field-flattening at it’s ends, and a single-layer winding LS was used, the number of turns depending on the diameter of the wire used.

The current amplification for these particular coils is 4 times.
Changing LS inductance is 3% (if L2 is short-circuited)

SECRET 5
The power source in Nikola Tesla car “Red arrow” is
FERROMAGNETIC RESONANCE

COMMENT:   To understand electromagnetic feedback, you must consider the action to be like that of domains which have a group behaviour, or alternatively, spin waves (like a row of standing dominos falling over where each one is toppled by the previous one hitting it).

THE BASIS OF FERROMAGNETIC RESONANCE

When a ferromagnetic material is placed in a magnetic field, it can absorb external electromagnetic radiation in a direction perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field, which will cause ferromagnetic resonance at the correct frequency.


This is an energy-amplifying transformer invented by Mr. Tesla.

QUESTION:   What use is a ferromagnetic rod in Free-Energy devices?

AN ANSWER:   It can change magnetisation of the material along magnetic field direction without the need for a powerful external force.

QUESTION:   Is it true that the resonant frequencies for ferromagnetics are in the tens of Gigahertz range?

AN ANSWER:   Yes, it is true, and the frequency of ferromagnetic resonance depends on the external magnetic field (high field = high frequency). But with ferromagnetics it is possible to get resonance without applying any external magnetic field, this is the so-called “natural ferromagnetic resonance”. In this case, the magnetic field is defined by the local magnetisation of the sample. Here, the absorption frequencies occur in a wide band, due to the large variations possible in the conditions of magnetisation, and so you must use a wide band of frequencies to get ferromagnetic resonance.

A POSSIBLE PROCESS FOR ACQUIRING FREE-ENERGY

1. Subjecting a ferromagnetic to a short electromagnetic pulse even without an external magnetic field, causes the acquisition of spin precession (domains will have group behaviour, and so ferromagnetics can easily be magnetised).

2. Magnetisation of ferromagnetics can be by an external magnetic field.

3. Energy acquisition can be as a result of strong sample magnetisation caused by an external magnetic field of lesser strength.

COMMENT:   You must use synchronisation for processes of irradiation and magnetisation of the sample.

USEFUL COMMENT:   A ferromagnetic shield will not destroy the inductance of any coil placed inside it, provided that the ends of that coil are positioned on one side of the coil.


But, this coil can magnetise the ferromagnetic shield.

SECRET 5 CONTINUATION …
TWO PERPENDICULAR COILS ON A COMMON AXIS

(Standing waves, spin waves, domino effect, laser effect, open resonator, etc…)

EXPLANATION:   Standing waves can be excited not only in Tesla’s “horseshoe” magnet, but also in Tesla’s ferromagnetic transformer (excited by sparks…



COMMENT:   Excitation can be arranged in different ways, by coils connection. The frequencies of oscillations in a coil depends on the number of turns in it (a big variation is possible due to this factor).

ACTUAL COILS

COMMENT:   The positions of the coils on the rods depends on whatever ferromagnetic material is being used, and on it’s size. The optimum arrangement has to be determined through experimentation.

A transformer can have two pairs of coils: exciting (tubes), resonance or load (inside)
see Tesla’s picture.

TOROIDAL VERSION OF AN ASYMMETRIC STACKED TRANSFORMER

An inductor L2 is placed on the central ring between the short-circuits of the core, and the coil LS (not shown) is wound around all three rings, covering the whole of the toroid – this is an ordinary toroidal coil.


The number of short-circuits depends on your requirements, and influences on the current amplification.

THAT’S ALL – GOOD LUCK …

CONCLUSIONS

1. The Energy-Conservation Law is a result (not reason) of symmetrical interaction.

2. The simplest way to destroy symmetrical interaction is by using electromagnetic field feedback.

3. All asymmetrical systems are outside the area covered by the Energy-Conservation Law.

THE ENERGY CONSERVATION LAW CANNOT BE VIOLATED
(The field covered by this law is only symmetrical interactions)
 

FREE-ENERGY:
NIKOLA TESLA SECRETS FOR EVERYBODY

by Vladimir Utkin    
u.v@bk.ru

FIRST SECRET
All of Tesla’s secrets are based on
ELECTROMAGNETIC FEEDBACK

EXPLANATION: An ordinary energy system comprises a generator and motor (common view), and can be completed with an electric current feedback as shown here in electrical circuit (a)


In case (a), the system once started, will slow down and stop because of friction, resistance and so on. Nikola Tesla arranged a feedback loop for the electromagnetic field: case (b), and he said:

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD FEEDBACK DESTROYS THE INTERACTION SYMMETRY

This means that an action no longer has an equal and opposite reaction

In case (b), once started, the system will accelerate in spite of friction, resistance and so on (provided that the phase of the electromagnetic feedback is positive and is sufficiently large). In order for an electromagnetic field to exist in a motor, there must be some energy input, and Tesla said:

ENERGY GENERATION BY IT’S OWN APPLICATION

QUESTION: How can you produce positive electromagnetic field feedback?

AN ANSWER: The simplest and well-known example is Michael Faraday’s unipolar motor, as modified by Nikola Tesla:


An ordinary unipolar motor consists of a magnetised disk, and a voltage applied between the axis and a point on the circumference of the disc as shown in (a) above. But an ordinary unipolar motor can also consists of an external magnet and a metal disc with a voltage applied between the axis and a peripheral point on the disc as in (b) above. Tesla decided to modify this version of the unipolar motor. He cut the metal disc into helical sections as shown here:


In this case, the consumption of current produces an additional magnetic field along the axis of the disc. When the current-carrying wires are tilted in one direction, their magnetic field augments the main external magnetic field. When the wires are tilted in the other direction, their magnetic field reduces the main external magnetic field. So, the current flow can increase or reduce the external magnetic field of the unipolar motor.

Amplification is not possible without applying power

If it is possible to arrange a magnetic field feedback loop for mechanical devices, then it is probably possible to arrange it for solid-state devices like coils and capacitors. The others parts of this article are devoted to devices which use coils and capacitors. All of the examples in this article are only intended to help your understanding of the principles involved. Understanding would be made easier if we pay attention to the ferromagnetic shielding of the second coil in the transformer invented by Nikola Tesla:


In this case, the ferromagnetic shield separates the first and second coils in the transformer from each other, and that shield can be used as magnetic field feedback loop. This fact will be useful for understanding the final part of this article. It is also helpful to consider the properties of the electrostatic field.

ELECTROSTATICS
(scalar field and the longitudinal electromagnetic waves)

Comment: Mr. Tesla said, “there is radiant energy, perpendicular to the surface of any charged conductor, produced by a scalar electromagnetic field, thus giving rise to longitudinal electromagnetic waves”.


At first glance, this contradicts the age-old experience in studying the electromagnetic field (according to modern concepts, any electromagnetic field has components which are perpendicular to the direction of the propagated electromagnetic wave), also, Maxwell’s equations describe an electromagnetic field as a vector. However, the first impression is erroneous, and no contradiction exists.

Definitions of Physics: Any conductor has both inductance and capacitance, that is, the ability to accumulate charge on it’s surface. A charge on the surface of a conductor creates an electric field (electrostatic field). The potential (voltage) at any point of the electric field is a scalar quantity!!! (That is, it is a scalar electric field …).


If the electric charge of the conductor varies with time, then the electrostatic field will also vary with time, resulting in the appearance of the magnetic field component:


Thus, the electromagnetic wave is formed (with the longitudinal component of E …).

REMARK: In order to understand how a longitudinal wave interacts with conductive bodies, one needs to read the section of electrostatics entitled “Electrification by Influence”. Particularly interesting are Maxwell’s equations where they mention the displacement current.

Now we come to the first secret:

SECRET 1

The power source in Nikola Tesla’s free energy device, the amplifying transformer, is a

SELF-POWERED L-C CIRCUIT

EXPLANATIONS:

AN EXAMPLE OF UNLIMITED VOLTAGE RISE
(Based on batteries and a switch)


EXPLANATION:   Batteries 1 and 2 are connected to the capacitor C alternately, through the inductances L. Voltage on capacitor C and the voltage from the batteries are increasing. As a result, there can be unlimited voltage rise. When the voltage on the capacitor reaches the desired level, it is connected to the load.

COMMENT:   Two diodes were used to avoid synchronisation requirements. Manual or relay switching can be used. One implementation used a spark gap to connect the output load but a switch is an alternative method.

TIMELINE FOR THE PROCESS:

The schematics can be simplified, and only one battery used (load is connected in the same way).


COMMENT:   Maybe Alfred Hubbard used an idea shown as option B, in some versions of his transformer


COMMENT:   If you want to get a self-powered circuit, you have to arrange some kind of energy feedback to the batteries. But, is this an actual FE technology? I am not sure….

QUESTION: Is this the only way to do it?   No, of course not – there are different ways of doing it. For example, you can use fields inside and outside of some LC circuits. How can we do that?

For more secrets read the following parts…

HOW DO WE GET THIS RESULT?

AN ANSWER: You need to charge the capacitor using the electric component of the electromagnetic field of the inductor (using the displacement current of Maxwell’s equations)


EXPLANATION When the electric field in capacitor C is decaying, due to feeding electrical current into an inductor (not shown), the external electric field generated by the inductor tries to charge this capacitor with the inductor’s displacement current. As a result, the capacitor draws energy in from the surrounding electromagnetic field, and the capacitor’s voltage rises cycle by cycle.

IMPLEMENTATION A – a central capacitor is used:

IMPLEMENTATION B – no capacitors are used:


In this case instead of using a capacitor, the capacitance between the two sections of inductor L provides the necessary capacitance.

HOW DO WE START THE PROCESS?
In implementation A, you must charge the capacitor and connect it to the inductor to start the process.
In implementation B, you must use an additional pulsing or “kicking” coil, which starts the process by providing a pulse in either the electrical field or the magnetic field (shown later on).

HOW DO WE STOP THE PROCESS?
The process of pumping energy can continue uninterrupted for an unlimited length of time and so the question arises; how do you stop the device if you should want to?. This can be done by connecting a spark gap across the coil L and the resulting sparking will be sufficient to stop the process.

THE “KICKING” PROCESS WITH AN ELECTRIC FIELD
Use an additional special “kicking” coil, which can generate short powerful magnetic pulses, and install an amplifying Tesla coil along the electrical vector of the electromagnetic field of this coil.


The electrical field of the driving pulse or “kicking” coil will charge the spread capacitors of the inductor, and the process will be started. Use pulses as short as possible in “kicking” coil, because the displacement current depends on the speed of the changes in the magnetic field.

THE “KICKING” PROCESS WITH A MAGNETIC FIELD
It is not possible to “kick” the process by displacement of the amplifying Tesla coil in the uniform changing magnetic field of the “kicking” coil, because the output voltage on the ends of the Tesla amplifying coil will be equal to zero in this case. So, you must use a non-uniform magnetic field. For that you must install a “kicking” coil, not in the centre of the amplifying Tesla coil, but positioned away from the centre


IS THAT ALL TRUE, AND THE BEST TECHNIQUE TO USE?
No, it is not! Nikola Tesla found more subtle and more powerful method – his bi-filar pancake coil!

BI-FILAR PANCAKE COIL – MAY BE THE BEST METHOD
The voltage between adjacent turns in an ordinary coil is very low, and so their ability to generate additional energy is not good. Consequently, you need to raise the voltage between adjacent turns in an inductor.

Method: divide the inductor into separate parts, and position the turns of the first part in between the turns of the second part, and then connect end of the first coil to the beginning of the second coil. When you do that, the voltage between adjacent turns will be the same as the voltage between the ends of the whole coil !!!

Next step – rearrange the position of the magnetic and electric fields in the way needed for applying amplifying energy (as described above). The method for doing this is – the flat pancake coil where the magnetic and electric fields are arranged in exactly the way needed for amplifying energy.


Now, it is clear why Tesla always said that his bi-filar pancake coil was an energy-amplifying coil !!!

REMARK: for the best charging of the natural self-capacitance of the coil, you have to use electric pulses which are as short as possible, because the displacement current as shown in Maxwell’s equation, depends to a major degree on the speed of the change in the magnetic field.

THE DUAL-LAYER CYLINDRICAL BI-FILAR COIL
Instead of the standard side-by-side cylindrical bi-filar coil, the coil winding may also be arranged in two separate layers, one on top of the other:

THE ELECTRO – RADIANT EFFECT
(Inductance in an electrostatic field)


EXPLANATION
The primary coil in Tesla’s transformer is the first plate of the capacitor. The secondary coil – is the second plate of the capacitor. When you charge a capacitor C from your source of energy, you charge a wire of the primary coil also. As a result, a wire of the secondary coil is charging also (as a return from ambient space).

In order to start the process, you have to remove charge from the primary coil (by arranging a jump in potential in ambient space). When this is done, a huge displacement current occurs – as a result of that potential jump. Inductance catches this magnetic flux, and you have energy amplification.

If this process is operating, then you generate a magnetic field in ambient space.

COMMENT:   The capacitance of the wire of the primary coil is very low, and so it takes very little energy to charge it, and a very short spark to discharge it (without removing charge from the capacitor C).

COMMENT:   Notice that the spark gap must be connected to the ground as, in my opinion, this is a very important feature of this process, but Mr Tesla did not show grounding. Perhaps this needs to be a separate grounding point.

REMARK:   In my opinion, this technology was also used in Gray’s device and in Smith’s devices and in both cases the spark gap was connected to the ground.

ALSO:   Pay attention to the words used in Gray’s patent “…. for inductive load”.

And, pay attention to Smith’s words “I can see this magnetic field, if I use a magnetometer”.

MODERN IMPLEMENTATIONS
in self-powered L-C circuits

EXAMPLE 1
Using a bi-filar coil as the primary coil in a resonant Tesla transformer
By Don Smith


Explanation:   The bi-filar primary coil is used as primary for energy amplification, and is pulsed through the spark gap.


EXAMPLE 2
By Mislavskij
Is comprised of two capacitor plates sandwiching a ferrite ring core with a coil wound on it:

EXPLANATION
When a capacitor is charging (or discharging), this “displacement” current flow generates a magnetic field in the vacuum in a circular form (Maxwell’s equations). If a coil is wound on a ferrite toroid placed between the plates of the capacitor, then a voltage is generated in the turns of that coil:

Also, if an alternating current is applied to the coil wound on the ferrite toroid, then voltage is generated on the capacitor plates.

If an inductor and a capacitor are combined in an L-C circuit, then there are two cases inside such an L-C circuit:

a) energy amplification           and           b) energy destruction

The situation depends on how the coils and capacitor are connected together


COMMENT: If the direction of the turns in the coil wound on the ferrite core is reversed, then the wires connecting the coil to the capacitor plates need to be swapped over as well.

The first experiments with a ferrite core inside a capacitor were made in 1992 by Mislavskij (a 7th-year pupil of the Moscow school), and so it is known as “Mislavskij’s transformer”

THE SAME APPROACH?
By Don Smith

In this arrangement, the capacitor is charged by sparks and powerful displacement current is produced. The transformer with the ferromagnetic core is collecting this current.


COMMENT: This schematic diagram is very rough, and lacking in details. It will not perform correctly without back-electromagnetic force suppression of some kind (see below).

SECRET 1.1
Back-EMF suppression in a resonating Tesla coil
Version 1

The primary and secondary coils, and the ground connection in this Tesla coil are arranged in special manner:


Explanation:   The exciting (driving) current and the load current in an electromagnetic field, are perpendicular to each other as shown here:


COMMENT:   In order to get an energy gain, the frequency of excitation of the primary coil must be the resonant frequency of the secondary coil.

COMMENT:   Excitation with just a single spark is possible.

COMMENT:   In Mr. Tesla’s terminology, this is pumping charges or charge funneling, the charge is coming from the ground (which is a source of energy).

POTENTIAL (VOLTAGE) DISTRIBUTION ON THE COIL

EXPLANATION: The task of the oscillating circuit is to create a local electromagnetic field with a large electrical component. In theory, it would only be necessary to charge up the high voltage capacitor just once and then a lossless circuit would maintain the oscillations indefinitely without needing any further power input. In reality, there are some losses and so some additional power input is needed.

THESE OSCILLATIONS ACT AS A “BAIT”, ATTRACTING CHARGE INFLOW FROM THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT. Almost no energy is needed in order to create and maintain such a “bait”…

The next step is to move to this “bait” to one side of the circuit, close to the source of the charges which is the Ground. At this small separation, breakdown occurs and the inherent parasitic capacitance of the circuit will be instantly recharged with energy flowing into the circuit from outside.

At the ends of the circuit there will be a voltage difference, and so there will be spurious oscillations. The direction of this electromagnetic field is perpendicular to the original field of the “bait” and so it does not destroy it. This effect is due to the fact that the coil consists of two opposing halves. The parasitic oscillations gradually die out, and they do not destroy the “bait” field.

The process is repeated spark by spark for every spark which occurs. Consequently, the more often sparks occur, the greater the efficiency of the process will be. The energy in the “bait” experiences almost no dissipation, providing a much greater power output than the power needed to keep the device operating.

TESLA SCHEMATICS

COMMENT:   Don Smith named this technology “Bird on the wire”. The bird is safe on the wire until a spark occurs.


COMMENT:   Mr. Tesla named this technology a “charge funnel” or “charge pump”

THE PRINCIPLE OF THE TECHNOLOGY

1. This Free-Energy device generates an AC electrical potential in ambient space (“bait” for electrons),
2. Electrons flowing through the load, flow in from the environment, attracted by this “bait” (pumped in)

NOT A SINGLE ELECTRON USED FOR EXCITING AMBIENT SPACE NEEDS TO FLOW THROUGH THE LOAD

POSSIBLE DESIGN FOR THE “CHARGE PUMP” or “CHARGE FUNNEL”

By Edwin Gray
Probable Schematic for Edwin Gray’s Cold Electricity Circuit

EXPLANATION:   This schematic is a simplification of Gray’s patent, produced by Dr. Peter Lindemann for greater clarification in his book

A POSSIBLE DESIGN FOR THE “CHARGE PUMP” or “CHARGE FUNNEL”


EXPLANATION: The charging system is unable to “see” the field inside a charging capacitor.

COMMON VIEW OF RESONANCE: Resonance is not destroyed if you short-circuit or open a “pumping” capacitor.


COMMENT: You can add an ordinary, very large capacitor in parallel with the “pumping” capacitor for more impressive results.

Don Smith illustration


COMMENTS: You have to use an alternating E-field, in order to charge the capacitor. But, Smith marked the North and South poles in his drawing. I think that this is true for only one instant. Diodes are not shown in his drawings, which indicates that his device as shown, is, to my mind, not complete.

THE EXTERNAL APPEARANCE OF ED GRAY’S TUBE

EXPLANATION:
  Gray’s tube with it’s two internal grids is seen in the middle. Two diodes are underneath the acrylic sheet (???). A Leiden Jar is located on the left (???) The HF HV coil is behind Gray’s tube (???)

A POSSIBLE DESIGN FOR THE “CHARGE PUMP” or “CHARGE FUNNEL”
THE TESTATIKA by Paul Bauman

EXPLANATION: The central electrode in the jars (capacitors) is for the excitation of ambient space; the two external cylinders are the plates of the charging capacitors.


EXPLANATION: The charging mechanism is unable to “see” the field inside the charging capacitors.
COMMENT: For more details read the section on asymmetrical capacitors.

A POSSIBLE DESIGN FOR THE “CHARGE PUMP” or “CHARGE FUNNEL”

COMMENT:
  This is based on Tesla’s schematics


COMMENT:   First, you need to arrange a “voltage killer” barrier on one side of the Tesla coil. This is to create a “BLIND” charging system which can’t “see” the charge on the capacitor (see below for more detail on “blindness”).

COMMENTS:   Huge capacitor means: as much ordinary capacitance as possible.     Effectiveness depends on voltage and coil frequency, and current in the node.     Effectiveness depends also on the frequency at which the excitation spark occurs. It is very similar to Don Smith’s devices.


COMMENT:   For more details read part devoted to Avramenko’s plug…

POSSIBLE DESIGN FOR THE “CHARGE PUMP” or “CHARGE FUNNEL”


EXPLANATION:   The charging system is unable to “see” the field inside the charging capacitor

COMMENT:   For more details read part devoted to Avramenko’s plug…

COMMENT:   An ordinary piece of wire can be used in some versions of this device, read below….

ENERGY REGENERATION BY
L/4 COIL

COMMENT:
  This system is based on wireless energy transmission through the ground


COMMENT:   Energy radiated to ambient space lowers the efficiency of this process
COMMENT:   The Receiver and Transmitter coils must have the same resonant frequency


COMMENT:   Possible alternative arrangement:


COMMENT:   A metal sheet can be used instead of a long wire

The “COLD” and “HOT” ends of a Tesla Coil
by Donald Smith

COMMENT:   If the excitation coil L2 is positioned in the centre of coil L2, then the Tesla Coil will have a “cold” end and a “hot” end. A spark gap can only be connected to the “hot” end. You cannot get a good spark if the spark gap is connected to the “cold” end.

COMMENT:   This is very important for practical applications, so read Don Smith’s documents for more details.


COMMENT:   It is easy understand the “Hot” and “Cold” ends, if one end of Tesla Coil is grounded…

The Grounded Tesla coil – a hidden form of energy

EXPLANATION:
  We can look at the Tesla coil as a piece of metal. Every piece of metal can be charged. If Tesla coil is grounded, it has an extra charge delivered from the ground, and has an extra energy also. But, it can be find out only in electrostatics interactions, not in electromagnetic one.

Comment:   This diagram shows only one instant, after half a cycle, the polarities will be swapped over.

Question:   How can we use this fact?

Answer:   We have to arrange an electrostatic interaction:

Comments:
Extra capacitors can be used for charging them.

This looks like Smith’s plasma globe device. Maybe, he used this technology.

This can be used in charge pump technology for excitation by an alternating electrical field, read the section on the charge pump or charge funnel.

The wiring can be different to that shown above.

Examples of grounded bifilar (multi-strand) coils
From Tariel Kapanadze in his 100 KW device

from Steven Mark in big TPU

from Donald Smith


Both of the two out of phase outputs were used and both connected to the step-down transformer.

1. Between sparks:
There is no current in the step-down transformer and so the two ends of L2 are at the same voltage.

2. During a spark:
Parasitic capacitors (not shown) of L2 (it’s up and down parts) are discharged to the ground, and current is produced in the step-down transformer. One end of L2 is at ground potential. But, the magnetic field of this current in L2 is perpendicular to the resonating field and so has no influence on it. As a result of this, you have power in the load, but the resonance is not destroyed.

COMMENTS:   In my opinion, these schematics have errors in the excitation section. Find those errors.

Excitation by a single spark is possible.

In the terminology of Mr. Tesla, this is a ‘charge pump’ or ‘charge funnel’.

The charges are coming from the Ground which is the source of the energy.

There are more secrets in the following parts.

SECRET 1.1
Back EMF suppression in a resonance coil
Version 2

Primary and secondary coils are placed on a rod core. All of the coils are arranged in special manner. The primary coil is placed in the middle of the core. The secondary coil is in two parts which are positioned at the ends of the rod. All of the coils are wound in the same direction.


Explanation:
The electromagnetic fields produced by the resonant (excitation) current and the load current are perpendicular to each other:


So, although you have power in the load, resonance is not destroyed by that output power.

COMMENTS:   The load must be chosen so as to get the maximum amount of power flowing into it. Very low loads and very high loads will both have close to zero energy flowing in them.

The secondary coil is shunting the primary coil, and so it has a current flowing in it even id no loads are connected.

The secondary coil can be adjusted for resonance too.

The “rod” material can be air, or other materials.

SECRET 1.1
Back EMF suppression in a resonance coil
Version 3
(long line usage – bifilar usage)

EXPLANATION:   It is very much like Version 1, but here, the two coils are combined into a single coil.

IT IS IMPOSSIBLE!
(Without back EMF suppression)
By Don Smith


Multi-coil system for energy multiplication

COMMENT:   You decide how you think it was made.   Maybe short-circuited coils will be useful…

Read the following parts to discover more secrets…

IMODERN OPTIONS?
For Back EMF suppression
Version 3

BI-FILAR USAGE
By Tariel Kapanadze

BI-FILAR USAGE
By Timothy Trapp


COMMENT:   See Trapp’s sites for more details

POSSIBLE CORE CONFIGURATION
For back EMF suppression

COMMENTS:   An ordinary excitation winding is wound all of the way around a toroidal core. A bi-filar output winding is wound around the whole of a toroidal core. Remember about the “Hot” and “Cold” ends of a bi-filar coil.

COMMENT:   Remember about the “Hot” and “Cold” ends of the output coil

THE BASIS OF BACK EMF SUPPRESSION
(Tesla patent)

SECRET 1.2
The Spark-Exciting Generator (“SEG”)

(Charge delivering to LC circuit)



EXPLANATION:

The spark delivers charge to the L-C circuit

The charge Q on a capacitor C with voltage U is: Q = U x C or U = Q / C

Where Q is a charge delivered by one spark.

During the excitation of the L-C circuit by the sparks, the capacitance C is constant.
After N excitations, the voltage Un on C will be Un = N x Q / C And, energy En will be raised as N2.
In other words, If the L-C circuit is excited by charges, we have energy amplification.


COMMENT: You need to understand that a feedback loop in the electromagnetic field is a changing voltage level in the L-C circuit capacitor, a high-voltage transformer is connected to collect the excess energy.

WITHOUT SYNCHRONISATION

The Spark-Exciting Generator
From Don Smith


MAINTAIN RESONANCE AND GET FREE-ENERGY !!


EXPLANATION:
  It appears that we need to charge the capacitor circuit to an energy level which is greater than that of the source energy itself. At first glance, this appears to be an impossible task, but the problem is actually solved quite simply.

The charging system is screened, or “blinded”, to use the terminology of Mr. Tesla, so that it cannot “see” the presence of the charge in the capacitor. To accomplish this, one end of a capacitor is connected to the ground and the other end is connected to the high-energy coil, the second end of which is free. After connecting to this higher energy level from the energising coil, electrons from the ground can charge a capacitor to a very high level.

In this case, the charging system does not “see” what charge is already in a capacitor. Each pulse is treated as if it were the first pulse ever generated. Thus, the capacitor can reach a higher energy level than of the source itself.

After the accumulation of the energy, it is discharged to the load through the discharge spark gap. After that, the process is repeated again and again indefinitely …

COMMENT:   The frequency of the excitation sparks, must match the resonant frequency of the output coil. (capacitors 2 and 14 are used to achieve this goal). This is multi-spark excitation.

COMMENT:   Charges are pumping from the ground to 11-15 circuit, this device extracts charge from ambient space. Because of this, it will not work properly without a ground connection. If you need Mains frequency, or don’t want use an output spark, then read the following parts…

Asymmetrical transformers can be used (read the following parts)

POSSIBLE SEG ARRANGEMENT
(From Russian forum)


COMMENT:   The L1 Tesla coil shown above, is energised by spark f1. Resonant, step-down transformer L2 is connected to the L1 Tesla coil by output spark f2. The frequency of f1 is much higher than that of f2.

SEG WITHOUT SYNCHRONISATION
From Don Smith

REMARK: It must be adjusted by dimensions, materials (???)

EXPLANATION

REMINDER: An ordinary capacitor is a device for separating charges on it’s plates, the total charge inside an ordinary capacitor is zero (read the textbooks).


There is an electrical field only inside the capacitor. The electrical field outside the capacitor is zero (because the fields cancel each other).

So far, connecting one plate to the ground we will get no current flowing in this circuit:


REMINDER: A separated capacitor is a device for accumulating charges on it’s plates.   The total charge on a separated capacitor is NOT zero (read the textbooks). So far, by connecting one plate of the separated capacitor to the ground we will get a current flowing in this circuit (because there is an external field).


REMARK: We get the same situation, if only one plate of an ordinary capacitor is charged. So far, connecting an uncharged plate of an ordinary capacitor to the ground we get a current flowing in this circuit also (because you have an external field).

Alternately charging a capacitor’s plates
Avramenko’s plug – is it a free energy device?

The principle: Each plate of a capacitor charges as a separated capacitor. Charging takes place in an alternating fashion, first one plate and then the other plate.


The result: The capacitor is charged to a voltage which is greater than that which the charging system delivers.

Explanation: The external field of an ordinary charged capacitor is equal to or near zero, as noted above. So, if you charge plates as a separated capacitor (upload or download charge), the charging system will not “see” the field which already exists inside the capacitor, and will charge the plates as if the field inside the capacitor is absent.

Once a plate has been charged, begin to charge another plate.


After the second plate of the capacitor has been charged, the external field becomes zero again. The charging system cannot “see” the field inside the capacitor once again and the process repeats again several times, raising the voltage until the spark gap connected to the output load discharges it.

REMARK: You will recall that an ordinary capacitor is a device for charge separation. The charging process of a capacitor causes electrons from on one plate to be “pumped” to another plate. After that, there is an excess of electrons on one plate, while the other one has deficit, and that creates a potential difference between them (read the textbooks). The total amount of charge inside the capacitor does not change. Thus the task of the charging system is to move charge temporarily from one plate to another.

The simplest Free-Energy device (???)

REMARK:
The capacitance of an ordinary capacitor is much greater than the capacitance of a separated plate capacitor (if it’s plates are close to each other).


COMMENT: The time between S1 and S2 is very short.


REMARK: This is an illustration of energy-dependence in a coordinated system.

REMARK: This is an illustration of the so-called Zero-Point Energy.

ASYMMETRICAL CAPACITOR
(Current amplification???)


COMMENT: The capacitance (size) of the plate on the right is much greater than that of the plate on the left.


COMMENT: Charges from the ground will run on to the right hand plate UNTIL the moment when the external field drops to zero caused by the second spark (“S2”). It takes more charges flowing from the ground to annihilate the external field at the instant of the second spark, because the capacitance of the plate on the right is far greater. ‘More charge’ means ‘more current’, so you have achieved current amplification through this arrangement.

COMMENT: The field at the terminals of the plate on the right is not zero after both sparks have occurred, this is because a field remains due to the additional charges which have flowed in (‘pumped’) from the ground.

THE SIMPLEST ASYMMETRICAL CAPACITORS

The most simple asymmetrical capacitors are the Leyden jar and the coaxial cable (also invented by Mr. Tesla).


Apart from the fact that the area (capacitance) of the plates of these capacitors is different, and they therefore are asymmetrical, they have another property:
The electrostatic field of the external electrode of these devices does not affect the internal electrode.


EXPLANATION: This is caused by the fact that the electrostatic field is absent inside the metal bodies (see textbooks).

REMARK: This is true provided that the plates are charged separately.

CAPACITOR – TRIODE


REMARK: Dr. Harold Aspden has pointed out the possibility of Energy Amplification when using this device.

THE PRINCIPLE OF THE “BLINDNESS”
CHARGING SYSTEM IN THE SEG

EXPLANATION:   A “short” coil is not able to see oscillations in “long” coil, because the total number of magnetic lines from “long” coil through “short” coil is close to zero (one half is in one direction and one half is in opposite direction).

COMMENT:   This a private case of asymmetrical transformer, for more details read part devoted to asymmetrical transformers.

COMMENTS ABOUT THE SEG:
All Back EMF schematics can be used in SEG

COMMENT:   No current will be produced in the load unless there is a ground connection in any of these circuits. Is excitation possible with just a single spark (???)

FOR MORE ASYMMETRY IN SEG ?
FOR ONE SPARK EXCITING IN SEG ?

By Don Smith

COMMENT:   This arrangement becomes more asymmetrical after excitation.

EXPLANATION
Symmetry is destroyed by a spark

If the impedances of Ra and Rc are the same at the frequency produced by signal generator F1, then the resulting voltage at points A and B will also be identical which means that there will be zero output.

If the circuit is excited by the very sharp, positive-only, DC voltage spike produced by a spark, then the impedances of Ra and Rc are not the same and there is a non-zero output.

Here is a possible alternative. Please note that the position of the output coil must be adjusted, it’s best position depending on value of resistor Rc and the frequency being produced by signal generator F1.

Here is another possible arrangement. Here, the position of the output coil depends on L1 and L2:

A NOMOGRAPH

Using a nomograph: Draw a straight line from your chosen 30 kHz frequency (purple line) through your chosen 100 nanofarad capacitor value and carry the line on as far as the (blue) inductance line as shown above.

You can now read the reactance off the red line, which looks like 51 ohms to me. This means that when the circuit is running at a frequency of 30 kHz, then the current flow through your 100 nF capacitor will be the same as through a 51 ohm resistor. Reading off the blue “Inductance” line that same current flow at that frequency would occur with a coil which has an inductance of 0.28 millihenries.

MODERN OPTIONS IN SEG
Back EMF suppression in resonance coil
Version 3
By Don Smith

COMMENT:   Please note that a long wire is used and one-spark excitation, where additional capacitors are used to create non-symmetry (???)

Version???
By Don Smith


Multi coil system for energy multiplication

Version???
By Tariel Kapanadze

KAPANADZE PROCESS
The process requires only 4 steps:
STEP 1

An L-C (coil-capacitor) circuit is pulsed and it’s resonant frequency determined (possibly by feeding it power through a spark gap and adjusting a nearby coil for maximum power collection).

STEP 2

The SEG process causes the energy level in the L-C circuit to rise. Power is fed via a spark gap which produces a very sharp square wave signal which contains every frequency in it. The L-C circuit automatically resonates at it’s own frequency in the same way that a bell always produces the same musical frequency when struck, no matter how it is struck.

STEP 3

The output waveform from the L-C circuit is then manipulated to provide an output which oscillates at the frequency on the local mains supply (50 Hz or 60 Hz typically).

STEP 4

Finally, the oscillations are smoothed by filtering to provide mains-frequency output power.

COMMENT:   All of these processes are described in Kapanadze’s patents and so, no state or private confidential information is shown here. Kapanadze’s process is the SEG process.

COMMENT:   As I see it, the main difference between the designs of Don Smith and Tariel Kapanadze is the inverter or modulator in the output circuit. At mains frequency you need a huge transformer core in a powerful inverter.

Read the following parts to discover more secrets…

MODERN OPTION
Lowering the L-C frequency to mains frequency (Modulation)

COMMENTS:   It is possible to use square waves instead of sine waves to ease the loading on the transistors. This is very similar to the output sections of Tariel Kapanadze’s patents. This method does not require a powerful transformer with a huge core in order to provide 50 Hz or 60 Hz.

Don Smith’s option (guessed at by Patrick Kelly)

COMMENT:   There is no high-frequency high-voltage step-down transformer, but a step-down transformer is used for mains frequency which means that it will need a huge core.

FOR BOTH SCHEMATICS:
You must choose the load in order to get the maximum power output. Very low, and very high loads will give almost no energy in the load (because the current flowing in the output circuit is restricted by the current flowing in the resonant circuit).

ILLUSTRATIONS FOR FREQUENCY LOWERING
From Tariel Kapanadze

ENERGY GAIN
(REMARKS on 1.1 and 1.2 SECRETS)

We must consider two options:
1. Back-EMF suppression . . . . . . . (1.1).
2. Excitation by a spark . . . . . . . . . (1.2).

THESE OPTIONS ARE DIFFERENT

However, in both cases, an increase of energy occurs due to the charges being pumped in from the ground. In the terminology of Mr. Tesla – “a charge funnel” or in modern terminology “a charge pump”.

1. In the first case, the problem for the oscillating circuit is to “create” an electromagnetic field which has a high intensity electrical component in ambient space. (Ideally, it is only necessary for the high-voltage capacitor be fully charged once. After that, if the circuit is lossless, then oscillation will be maintained indefinitely without the need for any further input power).

THIS IS A “BAIT” TO ATTRACT CHARGES FROM THE AMBIENT SPACE.

Only a tiny amount of energy is needed to create such a “bait”…

Next, move the “bait” to one side of the circuit, the side which is the source of the charges (Ground). The separation between the “bait” and the charges is now so small that breakdown occurs. The inherent parasitic capacitance of the circuit will be instantly charged, creating a voltage difference at the opposite ends of the circuit, which in turn causes spurious oscillations. The energy contained in these oscillations is the energy gain which we want to capture and use. This energy powers the load. This very useful electromagnetic field containing our excess power oscillates in a direction which is perpendicular to the direction of oscillation of the “bait” field and because of this very important difference, the output power oscillations do not destroy it. This vital factor happens because the coil is wound with two opposing halves. The parasitic oscillations gradually die out, passing all of their energy to the load.

This energy-gaining process is repeated, spark by spark. The more often a spark occurs, the higher the excess power output will be. That is, the higher the spark frequency (caused by a higher voltage across the spark gap), the higher the power output and the greater the efficiency of the process. Hardly any additional “bait” energy is ever required.

2. In the second case we must charge the capacitor circuit to an energy level higher than that of the source energy itself. At first glance, this appears to be an impossible task, but the problem is solved quite easily.

The charging system is screened, or “blinded”, to use the terminology of Mr. Tesla, so that it cannot “see” the presence of the charge in the capacitor. To accomplish this, one end of a capacitor is connected to the ground and the other end is connected to the high-energy coil, the second end of which is free. After connecting to this higher energy level from the energising coil, electrons from the ground can charge a capacitor to a very high level.

In this case, the charging system does not “see” what charge is already in a capacitor. Each pulse is treated as if it were the first pulse ever generated. Thus, the capacitor can reach a higher energy level than that of the source itself.

After the accumulation of the energy, it is discharged to the load through the discharge spark gap. After that, the process is repeated again and again indefinitely …

THIS PROCESS DOES NOT REQUIRE THE SUPPRESSION OF BACK-EMF

3. It should be noted, that option 1 and option 2 above could be combined.

SECRET 2
SWITCHABLE INDUCTANCE

The inductance is comprised of two coils which are positioned close to each other. Their connections are shown in front.

CONSTRUCTION: When constructing this arrangement there are many different options due to the various types of core which can be used for the coils:

1. Air-core
2. A ferromagnetic bar core
3. A ferromagnetic toroidal core
4. A transformer style ferromagnetic core.

PROPERTIES: (tested many times with a variety of cores)
The value of the total inductance LS does not change if you short one of the inductors L1 or L2
(This may have been tested for the first time by Mr. Tesla back in the 19th century).

APPLICATION TECHNIQUE:
This energy generation is based on the asymmetrical process:
1. Feed the total inductance LS with a current I
2. Then short-circuit one of the inductors (say, L1)
3. Drain the energy from inductor L2 into a capacitor
4. After draining L2, then remove the short-circuit from L1, short-circuit L2 and then drain the energy from L1 into a capacitor

QUESTION:   Is it possible, using this method, to get twice the energy amount due to the asymmetry of the process, and if not, then what is wrong?

AN ANSWER  : We need to start winding coils and performing tests.

EXAMPLES OF COILS ACTUALLY CONSTRUCTED


A coil was wound on a transformer ferromagnetic core (the size is not important) with permeability 2500 (not important) which was designed as a power-supply transformer. Each half-coil was 200 turns (not important), of 0.33 mm diameter wire (not important). The total inductance LS is about 2 mH (not important).


A coil was wound on a toroidal ferromagnetic core with permeability 1000 (not important). Each half-coil was 200 turns (not important), of 0.33 mm diameter wire (not important). The total inductance LS is about 4 mH (not important).


An ordinary laminated iron core transformer intended for 50-60 Hz power supply use (size is not important) was wound with a coil placed on each of it’s two halves. The total inductance LS is about 100 mH (not important).

THE OBJECTIVE OF THE TESTS
To make tests to confirm the properties of the coils, and then make measurements of the LS inductance both with coil L2 short-circuited and coil L2 not short-circuited, and then compare the results.

COMMENT:   All of the tests can be done with just the toroidal coil as the other coils have been shown to have the same properties. You can repeat these tests and confirm this for yourself.

OPTION 1
These simple inductance measurements can be carried out with the help of an ordinary RLC (Resistance / Inductance / Capacitance) meter, such as the one shown here:

The measurements taken:
The total coil inductance LS was measured without short-circuited coils, the figure was recorded. The L2 coil was then short-circuited and the inductance LS measured again and the result recorded. Then, the results of the two measurements were compared.

The result: The inductance LS was unchanged (to an accuracy of about a one percent).

OPTION 2
A special set-up was used, consisting of an analogue oscilloscope, a digital voltmeter and a signal generator, to measure a voltage on the inductance LS without L2 being short-circuited and then with L2 short-circuited.

After the measurements were made, all of the results were compared.

Schematic of the set-up:

The order in which the measurements were taken.
The voltage on the resistor was measured using the oscilloscope and the voltage on the inductor was measured using the voltmeter. Readings were taken before and after short-circuiting L2.

The result:   The voltages remained unchanged (to an accuracy of about one percent).

Additional measurements
Before the above measurements were taken, the voltages across L1 and L2 were measured. The voltage on both halves was a half of the voltage on the total inductor LS.

COMMENT:   The frequency of about 10 kHz was chosen because the coil did not have parasitic resonances at this frequency or at low frequencies. All measurements were repeated using a coil with a ferromagnetic E-shaped transformer core. All of the results were the same.

OPTION 3
Capacitor recharge.
The objective was to match voltages on a capacitor, both before and after it being recharged by interaction with an inductor which could be connected into the circuit via a switch.

The experiment conditions
A capacitor is charged from a battery and is connected to the inductor through the first diode (included to give protection against oscillations). At the moment of feedback, half of the inductor is shunted by the second diode (due to it’s polarity), while the inductance must remain unchanged. If after recharging the capacitor the capacitor voltage is the same (but with reversed polarity), then generation will have taken place (because a half of the energy remains in the shunted half of the inductor).

In theory, it is impossible, for an ordinary inductor consisting of two coils to do this.

The result :

The result confirms the prediction – the remaining energy is more than the capacitor gives to the coil (with an accuracy of 20%).

Test components:
Capacitor 47 nano Farads, inductor LS is about 2 mH , Shotky silicon diodes BAT42, voltage used: 12 V.

THE RESULT VERIFICATION FOR OPTION 3
For verification of these results and in order to improve the accuracy, all measurements were repeated using alternative components.

Test components: Capacitor: 1.5 nano Farads; total inductance: 1.6 mH, germanium diodes: (Russian) D311, charging voltage: 5V.

The result: Confirmation of the previous measurements (a) shown below

(a)                                                                             (b)


The recharging accuracy was improved to 10 percent. Also, a check measurement was made without the second diode. The result was essentially the same as the measurement which used the shunting diode. The missing 10 percent of the voltage can be explained as losses due to the spread capacitor’s inductance and in it’s resistance.

CONTINUED TESTING
The shunting diode was reversed and the test performed again:

   

The result: It seems that the charge is spot on…

Further testing
An oscilloscope was connected to the coil instead of to the capacitor, in order to avoid influence of the first diode so the oscillations viewed were based on the inductance of the spread capacitors.

   

   

The result: The accuracy of capacitor recharging was improved to 5 percent (due to the removal of the influence of the first diode). After the main capacitor was switched off (by the diode), you can see oscillations caused by the spread capacitance of the inductors. Based on the frequency of the oscillations which were 4 to 5 times higher than that of the main capacitor, one can estimate the spread capacitance as being 16 to 25 times lower than the main capacitor.

Still further testing
Testing of the oscillation circuit shunting, with the two cases combined (and without the first diode):

   

The result: A contour (oscillation circuit) is not destroyed, but it is shunted a lot. One can explain it by considering the moments when both diodes are conducting and so, shunt the circuit. As an addition, the voltage on the down diode is shown (the time scale is stretched). The negative voltage is close to maximum.

Still further testing
Charging a capacitor by shunting current in oscillation mode.

   

   

Conditions:   The addition of a charging capacitor of 47 nano Farads.

The result: A capacitor is charging without shunting the circuit. The final voltage on it is 0.8 V, and rises an falls of the voltage depend on the value of the capacitor.

THE OVERALL RESULTS OF THE TESTS (OPTIONS 1, 2 and 3)
The symmetry of interaction in systems with electromagnetic field feedback (as with switched inductance) appears to be violated, and this implies that this arrangement could be used to generate energy.

COMMENT:   You need to choose the load in order to get the maximum power output. Very low, and very high loads, will send almost no energy to the load.

ILLUSTRATION FOR SWITCHABLE INDUCTANCE

EXPLANATION:   The circuit has two kinds of currents: the main current and the shunting current.

The main and the shunting currents run through the same output capacitor in one direction, if the output capacitor is discharged.

There is no shunting current, if the output capacitor is charged.

ILLUSTRATION FOR SWITCHABLE INDUCTANCE
From Don Smith


EXPLANATION: As Don Smith said, two detector receivers were combined, and one FE device was constructed.


COMMENT: Don Smith produced this explanation as a PDF file; maybe you’ll be able to find it on the internet.
COMMENT: The resistance of the load must be chosen so as to get the maximum possible power in it.
COMMENT: The “board” does not contain an output circuit, because a couple of spark gaps and one step-down transformer can be used instead of diodes and a capacitor (this was pointe

MECHANICAL (INERTIAL) ANALOGUE OF SWITCHABLE INDUCTANCE
From Tariel Kapanadze


EXPLANATION: When one pendulum is stopping the other is accelerating. The controlling mechanism connects the pendulums to the output generator one after the other and so maintains the oscillations.

CONNECTING EXTRA MASS TO A MECHANICAL OSCILLATOR


EXPLANATION:
  Mechanical energy can be stored in any spring by compressing it or stretching it (1). It corresponds to two positions in a mechanical oscillator (2), when only potential energy takes place in an oscillating process


EXPLANATION:   If extra mass is connecting periodically to one side or the other, of a mechanical oscillator, it will be shifting without any energy loss during the oscillation process.

THE PRINCIPLE OF AMPLIFICATION OF MECHANICAL ENERGY


EXPLANATION:
  The principle is based on an asymmetrical flywheel (1) consisting of a small mass and a large mass. These masses are balanced across the centre of rotation, that is, are located at a distance proportional to their weights, from the center of rotation. This helps to avoid vibration when they are rotating (the same principle used when balancing a car wheel).


The inertial moment of such a flywheel (1) is analogous to the inertial moments of flywheels (2) and (3), consisting only of large or small masses. However, from the point of view of kinetic energy, all of these examples, (1), (2) and (3) are different. This is because the kinetic energy of every mass depends on the direction and speed at which it moves (if is released during rotation). The highest common kinetic energy is in the masses of flywheel (3), as less energy is contained in flywheel (1) and the smallest kinetic energy is in flywheel (2). In order to get an increase in energy one needs to achieve a set-up which is based on a spring (for energy transformation from kinetic energy to potential energy and back again) and a lever of Archimedes (for changing the point where the force is applied).


Comments:
1. The simplified schematic diagrams shown here are for explanation purposes only.
2. In an actual device, you can use a spring in rotation mode (as Tariel Kapanadze did).
3. You can use disks and rings as flywheel masses (as Tariel Kapanadze did).
4. Altering one mass to another is actually achieved by connecting them in various ways.


Comment:   Any asymmetrical mechanical oscillator behaves as indicated above, when the potential energy of a compressed spring is transformed into the kinetic energy of moving masses.


The potential energy of the spring is distributed unequally between the small and large masses. A small mass acquires more energy relative to it’s size than a large mass does. The sum of the kinetic energies of both masses is equal to the potential energy of the spring.

Comment:   This is based on Tesla’s asymmetrical schematic:

FLYWHEEL – A HIDDEN FORM OF ENERGY
(Clarifications on mechanical energy amplification)

EXPLANATION:   If you don’t want to lose mechanical energy when doing work, then this work must be done by an imaging force. This force is absent in an inertial coordinate system, but it is present in a non-inertial coordinate system. When in a rotational coordinate system this force is called ‘centrifugal’ force.


Comment:   After the work is done, the centrifugal force is low and if you want to continue producing mechanical work, you have to use the other coordinate system where centrifugal force is high again. This is possible because linear velocity does not change. You have to provide the other support point only (and a cord) in order to produce mechanical energy again.

Comment:   If you want to make this mechanical work continuous, then the end of the first track must also be the beginning of the second track. You have to change coordinate system periodically.


Comment:   In a real situation, you have to compensate for energy loss due to friction and so a part of the excess energy must be used to maintain the process.

ILLUSTRATION FOR SWITCHABLE INDUCTANCE
From Alfred Hubbard


EXPLANATION:   The center coil and all of the peripheral coils can “grasp” the same flux coming from the resonance coil. All other details are the same as in Smith’s version.

COMMENTS:   In other words, you can use rods as the coil core, instead of a closed ferromagnetic core.   But, this is not the only option in Hubbard’s device. He may have had another one, based on a different principle, perhaps the principle of energy amplification in an LC circuit as described earlier, but with switchable inductance being used.

MODERN OPTIONS?
In switchable inductance
Version 1
A coil has more inductance when some of it’s parts are short-circuited:

   

EXPLANATION:   The central section of the coil and it’s two end sections are wound in opposite directions.

COMMENT:   The coil shown in the picture above has twice the inductance, when it’s end sections are short-circuited (measurements made with the Chinese-built RLC test meter shown here:

But, this looks like resonance in an asymmetrical transformer ?????

Version 3
By Tariel Kapanadze

No description …???

Read on for further details….

THE BASIS OF SWITCHABLE INDUCTANCES
(Tesla patent)

SECRET 3
THE ASYMMETRICAL TRANSFORMER

With a magnetic field feedback loop (evolution of the 2nd secret)

LENZ LAW IS VIOLATED IN AN ASYMMETRICAL TRANSFORMER
(Therefore it is not possible to use it as an ordinary transformer)

An asymmetrical transformer can have two coils: L2 and LS. Coil L2 is wound on one side of the toroidal core while LS is wound so that it encloses both the toroid and the coil L2 as shown here:

         

Optionally, this arrangement can be implemented with a wide range of styles of transformer core:

         

One option is to use the above (switched inductor) arrangement and add one more coil:

         

Now that you understand the operational principles of this system, you can use any configuration which you need. For example:

ILLUSTRATION FOR AN ASYMMETRICAL TRANSFORMER OF SOME KIND

THE MECHANICAL EQUIVALENT OF AN ASYMMETRICAL TRANSFORMER

This example shows an ordinary transformer, wound on an E-core plus an external excitation magnet:

In other words: L2 is still used, but instead of LS the exciting magnet is used.

The result:
1. The voltage developed across coil L2 depends on the number of turns in L2, but the short-circuit current through L2 does NOT depend on the number of turns in coil L2.

2. You need to choose the load connected to L2 in order to get the maximum power output. Very low, and very high loads, will give almost no power output.

RESONANCE IN AN ASYMMETRICAL TRANSFORMER

The first coil is used as a transmitter of energy, and the second coil as a receiver of energy.

It is very like radio broadcasting, where the receiver is located far away from the transmitter, and has no feedback. The first coil works in parallel resonance and the second coil in serial resonance (although the two schematic diagrams look alike).

CONSEQUENTLY:   You can get much more voltage on L2 than on LS

An experiment:

Conditions:
The resonance frequency is about 10 kHz. The total inductance LS is 2.2 mH, the L2 inductance (same as the L1 inductance) is 100 mH, the ratio LS:L2 is 1:45 with an E-shape core, permeability is 2500.

The result:
At the resonance frequency, there can be a voltage which is 50 times more on any parts (L1 or L2) matched with the total coil LS, and voltage changes on R are no more 15 percent.

The phase shift in voltage is about 90 degrees between LS and L2.


(The amplitudes were equalised)

Further
An additional step-down coil LD was wound around L2, turns ratio 50:1 (matched with L2), and the load resistor RL = 100 Ohms was connected to it.

The result
Changes in current consumption (estimated by measuring the voltage across R) are no more 15 percent.

MODERN OPTIONS IN USAGE OF AN
Asymmetrical transformer

By Don Smith

The schematic is like this:

   

COMMENTS:   Between sparks, L2 has a voltage on it’s ends. If RL is connected directly to L2 then there will be no output current without resonance and there will be no output current without a spark.

MORE ACCURATE:

COMMENTS:   L2 has no voltage on it’s ends (without a spark). This is ordinary back-EMF suppression, invented by Nikola Tesla.


COMMENT:   L2 has no voltage on it’s ends (without a spark).

Secret 3.1
THE ASYMMETRICAL TRANSFORMER BASED
ON THE SHORT-CIRCUITED COIL

INTRODUCTION

Remark: Voltage distribution on the shorted coil depends on the position of the exciting coil.

DESCRIPTION

CASE 1   The excitation coil is centered:

Result:   We have the full period of the voltage distribution on the short-circuited coil

CONSTRUCTION OF THE ASYMMETRICAL TRANSFORMER
based on the short-circuited coil

CASE 1   The short-circuited coil is wound in one direction

Result:   The output does not influence the input in any way.

Explanation:   The signal from the output coil generates zero voltage difference on the input coil.

Remark:   The position of the coils should be adjusted in order to give the best result.

CASE 2   The short-circuited coil is wound in opposite directions from the centre outwards, and only half of the coil is short-circuited:

Result:   The output has no influence on the input coil

Explanation:   The signal from the output coil generates zero voltage difference on the input coil.

Remark:   The position of the input coil needs to be adjusted to get the best result.

Remark:   The coil’s position depends on permeability of the core. More permeability means more alike with distribution pointed at the beginning.

Best Position:   To find the best coil position, connect the signal generator to the output, and then find the coil position which shows zero at the input terminals. Alternatively, use an RLC meter connected to the input terminals and then find the coil position which gives no change in reading when the output terminals are short-circuited (for both case 1 and case 2).

Comment: The length of the wire, the total length of the coil, and the diameter of the coil are not important. The number of turns in the input and output coils plays the same role as in an ordinary transformer, for both case 1 and case 2.

MODERN APPLICATIONS FOR SHORT-CIRCUITED COILS
By Don Smith

CASE 1

CASE 2

REMARK:   The position of the coils must be adjusted until the output has zero influence on the input.

REMEMBER:   None of the (input) energy used for exciting ambient space should appear in the load.

AN EXAMPLE OF CASE 2

By Don Smith

COMMENTS:   The output coil can be adjusted to resonate with the input coil, but this is not important for understanding the principle. Excitation with just one spark is possible (not in resonance), but the frequency of the sparks influences the output power directly.


COMMENTS:   The resonant frequency of the circuit is about 60-70 kHz, but dimmer is for 30-35 kHz.  Voltage/frequency technology was used for adjusting the excitation frequency.  Two parameters have to be adjusted: the position of the slider and the excitation frequency.

MODERN APPLICATION FOR SHORT-CIRCUITED COILS
By William Barbat

US Patent Application number 2007/0007844

Self-Sustaining Electric-Power Generator Utilizing Electrons of Low Inertial Mass to Magnify Inductive Energy


COMMENT:   In order to understand this device, you have to read Barbat’s patent application US 2007/0007844 A1:   available here

COMMENT:   I would like to point out that externally, it looks very much like Alfred Hubbard’s device.

AN EXAMPLE OF CASE 1
By Tariel Kapanadze

COMMENT:   Adjust the positions of the coils to get the best result.

AN EXAMPLE OF CASE 1

By Steven Mark

TPU


REMARK:
An idea – an asymmetrical transformer based on the shorted-circuited coil:

               

REMARK:   The positions of the coils must be properly adjusted, in order to have no transmission feedback from the output to the input. To understand this better, read the part which is devoted to switchable inductance.

EXPLANATION:

THE BASIS OF THE TPU

(Tesla Patent)

REMEMBER:
The position of the coils must be adjusted. The easiest way to do this is to add or remove turns at the ends of the coils.

AN EXAMPLE OF CASE 2
By Tariel Kapanadze
Mechanical device

               

MODERN USE OF SHORT-CIRCUITED COILS
by Cherepanov Valera (‘SR193’ in Russian forum)

COMMENT:   This arrangement does not have an OU effect, but it can be used for back-EMF suppression in resonance (spark excited) mode to get a laser effect (very exciting summation effects).

COMMENT:   This was copied from this device of Tariel Kapanadze (???).

Don Smith

COMMENT:   Mr. Tesla said: “The optimum relation for the main and additional coil is 3/4L and L/4”. Is that ratio used here?

COMMENT:   If you don’t understand this schematic, look at simplest version of the coil.


COMMENT: This is an instance of case 1 where the output coil was removed, and some of the turns of the short-circuited coil were used instead.

THE ASYMMETRICAL TRANSFORMER (BASED ON A SHORT-CIRCUITED COIL)
COMBINED WITH A STEP-DOWN TRANSFORMER?

By Don Smith

THE RELATIONSHIPS of Don Smith’s TPU size and position are important.

REMARK: Those relationships are used to produce an asymmetrical transformer

MECHANICAL ANALOGUE OF THE
ASYMMETRICAL TRANSFORMER
CASE 2

By Don Smith

Schematic:

REMEMBER:   Any asymmetrical transformer must be adjusted.

REMARK:   Don Smith placed magnets inside the coils, but that is not important for understanding the process as his device does not match the schematic.

SOME REMARKS ON ASYMMETRICAL IN-FRONT CONNECTION
(Useful remarks)

Some turns were added on one half of the coil, and some turns were removed from the other half. An additional magnetic field H3 was created, with inductance – LD.

RESULT:   A large part of the total inductance acts as an inductor, and a small part acts as a capacitor.
This is a well known fact (read books). The total voltage on the coil is less than on it’s halves.

Here is the result of a capacitor discharging into this coil:

SECRET 4
CURRENT AMPLIFICATION

If a lot of asymmetric transformers are placed with a common flux flow through them, they will have no influence on this flux flow, as any one asymmetric transformer does not have any influence on the flux flow. If the secondary L2 transformer coils are then connected in parallel, this produces current amplification.

AS A RESULT
You have an asymmetric transformer arranged in a stack:

For flat (uniform) field inside of LS, it can be arranged with additional turns at it’s ends.

EXAMPLES OF COILS WHICH WERE ACTUALLY CONSTRUCTED

The coils are constructed from 5 sections, made from E-type ferrite core with a permeability of 2500, and wound using plastic-covered wire. The central sections L2 have 25 turns, and edge sections have 36 turns (to equalise the voltage on them). All sections are connected in parallel. The coil LS has magnetic field-flattening at it’s ends, and a single-layer winding LS was used, the number of turns depending on the diameter of the wire used.

The current amplification for these particular coils is 4 times.
Changing LS inductance is 3% (if L2 is short-circuited)

SECRET 5
The power source in Nikola Tesla car “Red arrow” is
FERROMAGNETIC RESONANCE

COMMENT:   To understand electromagnetic feedback, you must consider the action to be like that of domains which have a group behaviour, or alternatively, spin waves (like a row of standing dominos falling over where each one is toppled by the previous one hitting it).

THE BASIS OF FERROMAGNETIC RESONANCE

When a ferromagnetic material is placed in a magnetic field, it can absorb external electromagnetic radiation in a direction perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field, which will cause ferromagnetic resonance at the correct frequency.


This is an energy-amplifying transformer invented by Mr. Tesla.

QUESTION:   What use is a ferromagnetic rod in Free-Energy devices?

AN ANSWER:   It can change magnetisation of the material along magnetic field direction without the need for a powerful external force.

QUESTION:   Is it true that the resonant frequencies for ferromagnetics are in the tens of Gigahertz range?

AN ANSWER:   Yes, it is true, and the frequency of ferromagnetic resonance depends on the external magnetic field (high field = high frequency). But with ferromagnetics it is possible to get resonance without applying any external magnetic field, this is the so-called “natural ferromagnetic resonance”. In this case, the magnetic field is defined by the local magnetisation of the sample. Here, the absorption frequencies occur in a wide band, due to the large variations possible in the conditions of magnetisation, and so you must use a wide band of frequencies to get ferromagnetic resonance.

A POSSIBLE PROCESS FOR ACQUIRING FREE-ENERGY

1. Subjecting a ferromagnetic to a short electromagnetic pulse even without an external magnetic field, causes the acquisition of spin precession (domains will have group behaviour, and so ferromagnetics can easily be magnetised).

2. Magnetisation of ferromagnetics can be by an external magnetic field.

3. Energy acquisition can be as a result of strong sample magnetisation caused by an external magnetic field of lesser strength.

COMMENT:   You must use synchronisation for processes of irradiation and magnetisation of the sample.

USEFUL COMMENT:   A ferromagnetic shield will not destroy the inductance of any coil placed inside it, provided that the ends of that coil are positioned on one side of the coil.


But, this coil can magnetise the ferromagnetic shield.

SECRET 5 CONTINUATION …
TWO PERPENDICULAR COILS ON A COMMON AXIS

(Standing waves, spin waves, domino effect, laser effect, open resonator, etc…)

EXPLANATION:   Standing waves can be excited not only in Tesla’s “horseshoe” magnet, but also in Tesla’s ferromagnetic transformer (excited by sparks…


COMMENT:   Excitation can be arranged in different ways, by coils connection. The frequencies of oscillations in a coil depends on the number of turns in it (a big variation is possible due to this factor).

ACTUAL COILS

COMMENT:   The positions of the coils on the rods depends on whatever ferromagnetic material is being used, and on it’s size. The optimum arrangement has to be determined through experimentation.

A transformer can have two pairs of coils: exciting (tubes), resonance or load (inside)
see Tesla’s picture.

TOROIDAL VERSION OF AN ASYMMETRIC STACKED TRANSFORMER

An inductor L2 is placed on the central ring between the short-circuits of the core, and the coil LS (not shown) is wound around all three rings, covering the whole of the toroid – this is an ordinary toroidal coil.


The number of short-circuits depends on your requirements, and influences on the current amplification.

THAT’S ALL – GOOD LUCK …

CONCLUSIONS

1. The Energy-Conservation Law is a result (not reason) of symmetrical interaction.

2. The simplest way to destroy symmetrical interaction is by using electromagnetic field feedback.

3. All asymmetrical systems are outside the area covered by the Energy-Conservation Law.


THE ENERGY CONSERVATION LAW CANNOT BE VIOLATED

(The field covered by this law is only symmetrical interactions)